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Appendix 1PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (SI UNITS)

| 909

Table A–1 Molar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties

Table A–2 Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases

Table A–3 Properties of common liquids, solids,and foods

Table A–4 Saturated water—Temperature table

Table A–5 Saturated water—Pressure table

Table A–6 Superheated water

Table A–7 Compressed liquid water

Table A–8 Saturated ice–water vapor

Figure A–9 T-s diagram for water

Figure A–10 Mollier diagram for water

Table A–11 Saturated refrigerant-134a—Temperature table

Table A–12 Saturated refrigerant-134a—Pressure table

Table A–13 Superheated refrigerant-134a

Figure A–14 P-h diagram for refrigerant-134a

Figure A–15 Nelson–Obert generalized compressibility chart

Table A–16 Properties of the atmosphere at highaltitude

Table A–17 Ideal-gas properties of air

Table A–18 Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen, N2

Table A–19 Ideal-gas properties of oxygen, O2

Table A–20 Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide,CO2

Table A–21 Ideal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, CO

Table A–22 Ideal-gas properties of hydrogen, H2

Table A–23 Ideal-gas properties of water vapor, H2O

Table A–24 Ideal-gas properties of monatomic oxygen, O

Table A–25 Ideal-gas properties of hydroxyl, OH

Table A–26 Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs functionof formation, and absolute entropy at25°C, 1 atm

Table A–27 Properties of some common fuels andhydrocarbons

Table A–28 Natural logarithms of the equilibriumconstant Kp

Figure A–29 Generalized enthalpy departure chart

Figure A–30 Generalized entropy departure chart

Figure A–31 Psychrometric chart at 1 atm total pressure

Table A–32 One-dimensional isentropic compressible-flow functions for an ideal gas with k � 1.4

Table A–33 One-dimensional normal-shock functions for an ideal gas with k � 1.4

Table A–34 Rayleigh flow functions for an idealgas with k � 1.4

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TABLE A – 1Molar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties

GasCritical-point properties

Molar mass, constant, Temperature, Pressure, Volume,Substance Formula M kg/kmol R kJ/kg · K* K MPa m3/kmol

Air — 28.97 0.2870 132.5 3.77 0.0883Ammonia NH3 17.03 0.4882 405.5 11.28 0.0724Argon Ar 39.948 0.2081 151 4.86 0.0749Benzene C6H6 78.115 0.1064 562 4.92 0.2603Bromine Br2 159.808 0.0520 584 10.34 0.1355n-Butane C4H10 58.124 0.1430 425.2 3.80 0.2547Carbon dioxide CO2 44.01 0.1889 304.2 7.39 0.0943Carbon monoxide CO 28.011 0.2968 133 3.50 0.0930Carbon tetrachloride CCl4 153.82 0.05405 556.4 4.56 0.2759Chlorine Cl2 70.906 0.1173 417 7.71 0.1242Chloroform CHCl3 119.38 0.06964 536.6 5.47 0.2403Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) CCl2F2 120.91 0.06876 384.7 4.01 0.2179Dichlorofluoromethane (R-21) CHCl2F 102.92 0.08078 451.7 5.17 0.1973Ethane C2H6 30.070 0.2765 305.5 4.48 0.1480Ethyl alcohol C2H5OH 46.07 0.1805 516 6.38 0.1673Ethylene C2H4 28.054 0.2964 282.4 5.12 0.1242Helium He 4.003 2.0769 5.3 0.23 0.0578n-Hexane C6H14 86.179 0.09647 507.9 3.03 0.3677Hydrogen (normal) H2 2.016 4.1240 33.3 1.30 0.0649Krypton Kr 83.80 0.09921 209.4 5.50 0.0924Methane CH4 16.043 0.5182 191.1 4.64 0.0993Methyl alcohol CH3OH 32.042 0.2595 513.2 7.95 0.1180Methyl chloride CH3Cl 50.488 0.1647 416.3 6.68 0.1430Neon Ne 20.183 0.4119 44.5 2.73 0.0417Nitrogen N2 28.013 0.2968 126.2 3.39 0.0899Nitrous oxide N2O 44.013 0.1889 309.7 7.27 0.0961Oxygen O2 31.999 0.2598 154.8 5.08 0.0780Propane C3H8 44.097 0.1885 370 4.26 0.1998Propylene C3H6 42.081 0.1976 365 4.62 0.1810Sulfur dioxide SO2 64.063 0.1298 430.7 7.88 0.1217Tetrafluoroethane (R-134a) CF3CH2F 102.03 0.08149 374.2 4.059 0.1993Trichlorofluoromethane (R-11) CCl3F 137.37 0.06052 471.2 4.38 0.2478Water H2O 18.015 0.4615 647.1 22.06 0.0560Xenon Xe 131.30 0.06332 289.8 5.88 0.1186

*The unit kJ/kg · K is equivalent to kPa · m3/kg · K. The gas constant is calculated from R � Ru /M, where Ru � 8.31447 kJ/kmol · K and M is the molarmass.

Source: K. A. Kobe and R. E. Lynn, Jr., Chemical Review 52 (1953), pp. 117–236; and ASHRAE, Handbook of Fundamentals (Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1993), pp. 16.4 and 36.1.

910 | Thermodynamics

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Appendix 1 | 911

TABLE A–2Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases

(a) At 300 K

Gas constant, R cp cvGas Formula kJ/kg · K kJ/kg · K kJ/kg · K k

Air — 0.2870 1.005 0.718 1.400Argon Ar 0.2081 0.5203 0.3122 1.667Butane C4H10 0.1433 1.7164 1.5734 1.091Carbon dioxide CO2 0.1889 0.846 0.657 1.289Carbon monoxide CO 0.2968 1.040 0.744 1.400Ethane C2H6 0.2765 1.7662 1.4897 1.186Ethylene C2H4 0.2964 1.5482 1.2518 1.237Helium He 2.0769 5.1926 3.1156 1.667Hydrogen H2 4.1240 14.307 10.183 1.405Methane CH4 0.5182 2.2537 1.7354 1.299Neon Ne 0.4119 1.0299 0.6179 1.667Nitrogen N2 0.2968 1.039 0.743 1.400Octane C8H18 0.0729 1.7113 1.6385 1.044Oxygen O2 0.2598 0.918 0.658 1.395Propane C3H8 0.1885 1.6794 1.4909 1.126Steam H2O 0.4615 1.8723 1.4108 1.327

Note: The unit kJ/kg · K is equivalent to kJ/kg · °C.

Source: Chemical and Process Thermodynamics 3/E by Kyle, B. G., © 2000. Adapted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.

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TABLE A–2Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases (Continued)

(b) At various temperatures

cp cv cp cv cp cv

Temperature,kJ/kg · K kJ/kg · K k kJ/kg · K kJ/kg · K k kJ/kg · K kJ/kg · K k

K Air Carbon dioxide, CO2 Carbon monoxide, CO

250 1.003 0.716 1.401 0.791 0.602 1.314 1.039 0.743 1.400300 1.005 0.718 1.400 0.846 0.657 1.288 1.040 0.744 1.399350 1.008 0.721 1.398 0.895 0.706 1.268 1.043 0.746 1.398400 1.013 0.726 1.395 0.939 0.750 1.252 1.047 0.751 1.395450 1.020 0.733 1.391 0.978 0.790 1.239 1.054 0.757 1.392500 1.029 0.742 1.387 1.014 0.825 1.229 1.063 0.767 1.387550 1.040 0.753 1.381 1.046 0.857 1.220 1.075 0.778 1.382600 1.051 0.764 1.376 1.075 0.886 1.213 1.087 0.790 1.376650 1.063 0.776 1.370 1.102 0.913 1.207 1.100 0.803 1.370700 1.075 0.788 1.364 1.126 0.937 1.202 1.113 0.816 1.364750 1.087 0.800 1.359 1.148 0.959 1.197 1.126 0.829 1.358800 1.099 0.812 1.354 1.169 0.980 1.193 1.139 0.842 1.353900 1.121 0.834 1.344 1.204 1.015 1.186 1.163 0.866 1.343

1000 1.142 0.855 1.336 1.234 1.045 1.181 1.185 0.888 1.335

Hydrogen, H2 Nitrogen, N2 Oxygen, O2

250 14.051 9.927 1.416 1.039 0.742 1.400 0.913 0.653 1.398300 14.307 10.183 1.405 1.039 0.743 1.400 0.918 0.658 1.395350 14.427 10.302 1.400 1.041 0.744 1.399 0.928 0.668 1.389400 14.476 10.352 1.398 1.044 0.747 1.397 0.941 0.681 1.382450 14.501 10.377 1.398 1.049 0.752 1.395 0.956 0.696 1.373500 14.513 10.389 1.397 1.056 0.759 1.391 0.972 0.712 1.365550 14.530 10.405 1.396 1.065 0.768 1.387 0.988 0.728 1.358600 14.546 10.422 1.396 1.075 0.778 1.382 1.003 0.743 1.350650 14.571 10.447 1.395 1.086 0.789 1.376 1.017 0.758 1.343700 14.604 10.480 1.394 1.098 0.801 1.371 1.031 0.771 1.337750 14.645 10.521 1.392 1.110 0.813 1.365 1.043 0.783 1.332800 14.695 10.570 1.390 1.121 0.825 1.360 1.054 0.794 1.327900 14.822 10.698 1.385 1.145 0.849 1.349 1.074 0.814 1.319

1000 14.983 10.859 1.380 1.167 0.870 1.341 1.090 0.830 1.313

Source: Kenneth Wark, Thermodynamics, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983), p. 783, Table A–4M. Originally published in Tables of Thermal Properties of Gases, NBS Circular 564, 1955.

912 | Thermodynamics

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Appendix 1 | 913

TABLE A–2Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases (Concluded)

(c) As a function of temperature_cp � a � bT � cT 2 � dT 3

(T in K, cp in kJ/kmol · K)

Temperature% error

Substance Formula a b c d range, K Max. Avg.

Nitrogen N2 28.90 �0.1571 � 10�2 0.8081 � 10�5 �2.873 � 10�9 273–1800 0.59 0.34Oxygen O2 25.48 1.520 � 10�2 �0.7155 � 10�5 1.312 � 10�9 273–1800 1.19 0.28Air — 28.11 0.1967 � 10�2 0.4802 � 10�5 �1.966 � 10�9 273–1800 0.72 0.33Hydrogen H2 29.11 �0.1916 � 10�2 0.4003 � 10�5 �0.8704 � 10�9 273–1800 1.01 0.26Carbon monoxide CO 28.16 0.1675 � 10�2 0.5372 � 10�5 �2.222 � 10�9 273–1800 0.89 0.37

Carbon dioxide CO2 22.26 5.981 � 10�2 �3.501 � 10�5 7.469 � 10�9 273–1800 0.67 0.22

Water vapor H2O 32.24 0.1923 � 10�2 1.055 � 10�5 �3.595 � 10�9 273–1800 0.53 0.24Nitric oxide NO 29.34 �0.09395 � 10�2 0.9747 � 10�5 �4.187 � 10�9 273–1500 0.97 0.36Nitrous oxide N2O 24.11 5.8632 � 10�2 �3.562 � 10�5 10.58 � 10�9 273–1500 0.59 0.26Nitrogen dioxide NO2 22.9 5.715 � 10�2 �3.52 � 10�5 7.87 � 10�9 273–1500 0.46 0.18

Ammonia NH3 27.568 2.5630 � 10�2 0.99072 � 10�5 �6.6909 � 10�9 273–1500 0.91 0.36Sulfur S2 27.21 2.218 � 10�2 �1.628 � 10�5 3.986 � 10�9 273–1800 0.99 0.38Sulfur dioxide SO2 25.78 5.795 � 10�2 �3.812 � 10�5 8.612 � 10�9 273–1800 0.45 0.24

Sulfur trioxide SO3 16.40 14.58 � 10�2 �11.20 � 10�5 32.42 � 10�9 273–1300 0.29 0.13

Acetylene C2H2 21.8 9.2143 � 10�2 �6.527 � 10�5 18.21 � 10�9 273–1500 1.46 0.59Benzene C6H6 �36.22 48.475 � 10�2 �31.57 � 10�5 77.62 � 10�9 273–1500 0.34 0.20Methanol CH4O 19.0 9.152 � 10�2 �1.22 � 10�5 �8.039 � 10�9 273–1000 0.18 0.08Ethanol C2H6O 19.9 20.96 � 10�2 �10.38 � 10�5 20.05 � 10�9 273–1500 0.40 0.22Hydrogenchloride HCl 30.33 �0.7620 � 10�2 1.327 � 10�5 �4.338 � 10�9 273–1500 0.22 0.08

Methane CH4 19.89 5.024 � 10�2 1.269 � 10�5 �11.01 � 10�9 273–1500 1.33 0.57Ethane C2H6 6.900 17.27 � 10�2 �6.406 � 10�5 7.285 � 10�9 273–1500 0.83 0.28Propane C3H8 �4.04 30.48 � 10�2 �15.72 � 10�5 31.74 � 10�9 273–1500 0.40 0.12n-Butane C4H10 3.96 37.15 � 10�2 �18.34 � 10�5 35.00 � 10�9 273–1500 0.54 0.24i-Butane C4H10 �7.913 41.60 � 10�2 �23.01 � 10�5 49.91 � 10�9 273–1500 0.25 0.13n-Pentane C5H12 6.774 45.43 � 10�2 �22.46 � 10�5 42.29 � 10�9 273–1500 0.56 0.21n-Hexane C6H14 6.938 55.22 � 10�2 �28.65 � 10�5 57.69 � 10�9 273–1500 0.72 0.20Ethylene C2H4 3.95 15.64 � 10�2 �8.344 � 10�5 17.67 � 10�9 273–1500 0.54 0.13Propylene C3H6 3.15 23.83 � 10�2 �12.18 � 10�5 24.62 � 10�9 273–1500 0.73 0.17

Source: B. G. Kyle, Chemical and Process Thermodynamics (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984). Used with permission.

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TABLE A–3Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods

(a) Liquids

Boiling data at 1 atm Freezing data Liquid properties

Normal Latent heat of Latent heat Specificboiling vaporization Freezing of fusion Temperature, Density heat

Substance point, °C hfg, kJ/kg point, °C hif , kJ/kg °C r, kg/m3 cp, kJ/kg · K

Ammonia �33.3 1357 �77.7 322.4 �33.3 682 4.43�20 665 4.52

0 639 4.6025 602 4.80

Argon �185.9 161.6 �189.3 28 �185.6 1394 1.14Benzene 80.2 394 5.5 126 20 879 1.72Brine (20% sodiumchloride by mass) 103.9 — �17.4 — 20 1150 3.11n-Butane �0.5 385.2 �138.5 80.3 �0.5 601 2.31Carbon dioxide �78.4* 230.5 (at 0°C) �56.6 0 298 0.59Ethanol 78.2 838.3 �114.2 109 25 783 2.46Ethyl alcohol 78.6 855 �156 108 20 789 2.84Ethylene glycol 198.1 800.1 �10.8 181.1 20 1109 2.84Glycerine 179.9 974 18.9 200.6 20 1261 2.32Helium �268.9 22.8 — — �268.9 146.2 22.8Hydrogen �252.8 445.7 �259.2 59.5 �252.8 70.7 10.0Isobutane �11.7 367.1 �160 105.7 �11.7 593.8 2.28Kerosene 204–293 251 �24.9 — 20 820 2.00Mercury 356.7 294.7 �38.9 11.4 25 13,560 0.139Methane �161.5 510.4 �182.2 58.4 �161.5 423 3.49

�100 301 5.79Methanol 64.5 1100 �97.7 99.2 25 787 2.55Nitrogen �195.8 198.6 �210 25.3 �195.8 809 2.06

�160 596 2.97Octane 124.8 306.3 �57.5 180.7 20 703 2.10Oil (light) 25 910 1.80Oxygen �183 212.7 �218.8 13.7 �183 1141 1.71Petroleum — 230–384 20 640 2.0Propane �42.1 427.8 �187.7 80.0 �42.1 581 2.25

0 529 2.5350 449 3.13

Refrigerant-134a �26.1 217.0 �96.6 — �50 1443 1.23�26.1 1374 1.27

0 1295 1.3425 1207 1.43

Water 100 2257 0.0 333.7 0 1000 4.2225 997 4.1850 988 4.1875 975 4.19

100 958 4.22

* Sublimation temperature. (At pressures below the triple-point pressure of 518 kPa, carbon dioxide exists as a solid or gas. Also, the freezing-point temperatureof carbon dioxide is the triple-point temperature of �56.5°C.)

914 | Thermodynamics

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TABLE A–3Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods (Concluded )

(b) Solids (values are for room temperature unless indicated otherwise)

Density, Specific heat, Density, Specific heat,Substance r kg/m3 cp kJ/kg · K Substance r kg/m3 cp kJ/kg · K

Metals Nonmetals

Aluminum Asphalt 2110 0.920200 K 0.797 Brick, common 1922 0.79250 K 0.859 Brick, fireclay (500°C) 2300 0.960300 K 2,700 0.902 Concrete 2300 0.653350 K 0.929 Clay 1000 0.920400 K 0.949 Diamond 2420 0.616450 K 0.973 Glass, window 2700 0.800500 K 0.997 Glass, pyrex 2230 0.840

Bronze (76% Cu, 2% Zn, 8,280 0.400 Graphite 2500 0.7112% Al) Granite 2700 1.017

Brass, yellow (65% Cu, 8,310 0.400 Gypsum or plaster board 800 1.0935% Zn) Ice

Copper 200 K 1.56�173°C 0.254 220 K 1.71�100°C 0.342 240 K 1.86

�50°C 0.367 260 K 2.010°C 0.381 273 K 921 2.11

27°C 8,900 0.386 Limestone 1650 0.909100°C 0.393 Marble 2600 0.880200°C 0.403 Plywood (Douglas Fir) 545 1.21

Iron 7,840 0.45 Rubber (soft) 1100 1.840Lead 11,310 0.128 Rubber (hard) 1150 2.009Magnesium 1,730 1.000 Sand 1520 0.800Nickel 8,890 0.440 Stone 1500 0.800Silver 10,470 0.235 Woods, hard (maple, oak, etc.) 721 1.26Steel, mild 7,830 0.500 Woods, soft (fir, pine, etc.) 513 1.38Tungsten 19,400 0.130

(c) Foods

Specific heat, Specific heat,kJ/kg · K Latent kJ/kg · K Latent

Water heat of Water heat ofcontent, Freezing Above Below fusion, content, Freezing Above Below fusion,

Food % (mass) point, °C freezing freezing kJ/kg Food % (mass) point, °C freezing freezing kJ/kg

Apples 84 �1.1 3.65 1.90 281 Lettuce 95 �0.2 4.02 2.04 317Bananas 75 �0.8 3.35 1.78 251 Milk, whole 88 �0.6 3.79 1.95 294Beef round 67 — 3.08 1.68 224 Oranges 87 �0.8 3.75 1.94 291Broccoli 90 �0.6 3.86 1.97 301 Potatoes 78 �0.6 3.45 1.82 261Butter 16 — — 1.04 53 Salmon fish 64 �2.2 2.98 1.65 214Cheese, swiss 39 �10.0 2.15 1.33 130 Shrimp 83 �2.2 3.62 1.89 277Cherries 80 �1.8 3.52 1.85 267 Spinach 93 �0.3 3.96 2.01 311Chicken 74 �2.8 3.32 1.77 247 Strawberries 90 �0.8 3.86 1.97 301Corn, sweet 74 �0.6 3.32 1.77 247 Tomatoes, ripe 94 �0.5 3.99 2.02 314Eggs, whole 74 �0.6 3.32 1.77 247 Turkey 64 — 2.98 1.65 214Ice cream 63 �5.6 2.95 1.63 210 Watermelon 93 �0.4 3.96 2.01 311

Source: Values are obtained from various handbooks and other sources or are calculated. Water content and freezing-point data of foods are from ASHRAE,Handbook of Fundamentals, SI version (Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1993), Chapter 30,Table 1. Freezing point is the temperature at which freezing starts for fruits and vegetables, and the average freezing temperature for other foods.

Appendix 1 | 915

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TABLE A–4Saturated water—Temperature table

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy,m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg · K

Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat.Temp., press., liquid, vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor,T °C Psat kPa vf vg uf ufg ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg

0.01 0.6117 0.001000 206.00 0.000 2374.9 2374.9 0.001 2500.9 2500.9 0.0000 9.1556 9.15565 0.8725 0.001000 147.03 21.019 2360.8 2381.8 21.020 2489.1 2510.1 0.0763 8.9487 9.0249

10 1.2281 0.001000 106.32 42.020 2346.6 2388.7 42.022 2477.2 2519.2 0.1511 8.7488 8.899915 1.7057 0.001001 77.885 62.980 2332.5 2395.5 62.982 2465.4 2528.3 0.2245 8.5559 8.780320 2.3392 0.001002 57.762 83.913 2318.4 2402.3 83.915 2453.5 2537.4 0.2965 8.3696 8.6661

25 3.1698 0.001003 43.340 104.83 2304.3 2409.1 104.83 2441.7 2546.5 0.3672 8.1895 8.556730 4.2469 0.001004 32.879 125.73 2290.2 2415.9 125.74 2429.8 2555.6 0.4368 8.0152 8.452035 5.6291 0.001006 25.205 146.63 2276.0 2422.7 146.64 2417.9 2564.6 0.5051 7.8466 8.351740 7.3851 0.001008 19.515 167.53 2261.9 2429.4 167.53 2406.0 2573.5 0.5724 7.6832 8.255645 9.5953 0.001010 15.251 188.43 2247.7 2436.1 188.44 2394.0 2582.4 0.6386 7.5247 8.1633

50 12.352 0.001012 12.026 209.33 2233.4 2442.7 209.34 2382.0 2591.3 0.7038 7.3710 8.074855 15.763 0.001015 9.5639 230.24 2219.1 2449.3 230.26 2369.8 2600.1 0.7680 7.2218 7.989860 19.947 0.001017 7.6670 251.16 2204.7 2455.9 251.18 2357.7 2608.8 0.8313 7.0769 7.908265 25.043 0.001020 6.1935 272.09 2190.3 2462.4 272.12 2345.4 2617.5 0.8937 6.9360 7.829670 31.202 0.001023 5.0396 293.04 2175.8 2468.9 293.07 2333.0 2626.1 0.9551 6.7989 7.7540

75 38.597 0.001026 4.1291 313.99 2161.3 2475.3 314.03 2320.6 2634.6 1.0158 6.6655 7.681280 47.416 0.001029 3.4053 334.97 2146.6 2481.6 335.02 2308.0 2643.0 1.0756 6.5355 7.611185 57.868 0.001032 2.8261 355.96 2131.9 2487.8 356.02 2295.3 2651.4 1.1346 6.4089 7.543590 70.183 0.001036 2.3593 376.97 2117.0 2494.0 377.04 2282.5 2659.6 1.1929 6.2853 7.478295 84.609 0.001040 1.9808 398.00 2102.0 2500.1 398.09 2269.6 2667.6 1.2504 6.1647 7.4151

100 101.42 0.001043 1.6720 419.06 2087.0 2506.0 419.17 2256.4 2675.6 1.3072 6.0470 7.3542105 120.90 0.001047 1.4186 440.15 2071.8 2511.9 440.28 2243.1 2683.4 1.3634 5.9319 7.2952110 143.38 0.001052 1.2094 461.27 2056.4 2517.7 461.42 2229.7 2691.1 1.4188 5.8193 7.2382115 169.18 0.001056 1.0360 482.42 2040.9 2523.3 482.59 2216.0 2698.6 1.4737 5.7092 7.1829120 198.67 0.001060 0.89133 503.60 2025.3 2528.9 503.81 2202.1 2706.0 1.5279 5.6013 7.1292

125 232.23 0.001065 0.77012 524.83 2009.5 2534.3 525.07 2188.1 2713.1 1.5816 5.4956 7.0771130 270.28 0.001070 0.66808 546.10 1993.4 2539.5 546.38 2173.7 2720.1 1.6346 5.3919 7.0265135 313.22 0.001075 0.58179 567.41 1977.3 2544.7 567.75 2159.1 2726.9 1.6872 5.2901 6.9773140 361.53 0.001080 0.50850 588.77 1960.9 2549.6 589.16 2144.3 2733.5 1.7392 5.1901 6.9294145 415.68 0.001085 0.44600 610.19 1944.2 2554.4 610.64 2129.2 2739.8 1.7908 5.0919 6.8827

150 476.16 0.001091 0.39248 631.66 1927.4 2559.1 632.18 2113.8 2745.9 1.8418 4.9953 6.8371155 543.49 0.001096 0.34648 653.19 1910.3 2563.5 653.79 2098.0 2751.8 1.8924 4.9002 6.7927160 618.23 0.001102 0.30680 674.79 1893.0 2567.8 675.47 2082.0 2757.5 1.9426 4.8066 6.7492165 700.93 0.001108 0.27244 696.46 1875.4 2571.9 697.24 2065.6 2762.8 1.9923 4.7143 6.7067170 792.18 0.001114 0.24260 718.20 1857.5 2575.7 719.08 2048.8 2767.9 2.0417 4.6233 6.6650

175 892.60 0.001121 0.21659 740.02 1839.4 2579.4 741.02 2031.7 2772.7 2.0906 4.5335 6.6242180 1002.8 0.001127 0.19384 761.92 1820.9 2582.8 763.05 2014.2 2777.2 2.1392 4.4448 6.5841185 1123.5 0.001134 0.17390 783.91 1802.1 2586.0 785.19 1996.2 2781.4 2.1875 4.3572 6.5447190 1255.2 0.001141 0.15636 806.00 1783.0 2589.0 807.43 1977.9 2785.3 2.2355 4.2705 6.5059195 1398.8 0.001149 0.14089 828.18 1763.6 2591.7 829.78 1959.0 2788.8 2.2831 4.1847 6.4678200 1554.9 0.001157 0.12721 850.46 1743.7 2594.2 852.26 1939.8 2792.0 2.3305 4.0997 6.4302

916 | Thermodynamics

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TABLE A–4Saturated water—Temperature table (Continued)

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy,m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg · K

Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat.Temp., press., liquid, vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor,T °C Psat kPa vf vg uf ufg ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg

205 1724.3 0.001164 0.11508 872.86 1723.5 2596.4 874.87 1920.0 2794.8 2.3776 4.0154 6.3930210 1907.7 0.001173 0.10429 895.38 1702.9 2598.3 897.61 1899.7 2797.3 2.4245 3.9318 6.3563215 2105.9 0.001181 0.094680 918.02 1681.9 2599.9 920.50 1878.8 2799.3 2.4712 3.8489 6.3200220 2319.6 0.001190 0.086094 940.79 1660.5 2601.3 943.55 1857.4 2801.0 2.5176 3.7664 6.2840225 2549.7 0.001199 0.078405 963.70 1638.6 2602.3 966.76 1835.4 2802.2 2.5639 3.6844 6.2483

230 2797.1 0.001209 0.071505 986.76 1616.1 2602.9 990.14 1812.8 2802.9 2.6100 3.6028 6.2128235 3062.6 0.001219 0.065300 1010.0 1593.2 2603.2 1013.7 1789.5 2803.2 2.6560 3.5216 6.1775240 3347.0 0.001229 0.059707 1033.4 1569.8 2603.1 1037.5 1765.5 2803.0 2.7018 3.4405 6.1424245 3651.2 0.001240 0.054656 1056.9 1545.7 2602.7 1061.5 1740.8 2802.2 2.7476 3.3596 6.1072250 3976.2 0.001252 0.050085 1080.7 1521.1 2601.8 1085.7 1715.3 2801.0 2.7933 3.2788 6.0721

255 4322.9 0.001263 0.045941 1104.7 1495.8 2600.5 1110.1 1689.0 2799.1 2.8390 3.1979 6.0369260 4692.3 0.001276 0.042175 1128.8 1469.9 2598.7 1134.8 1661.8 2796.6 2.8847 3.1169 6.0017265 5085.3 0.001289 0.038748 1153.3 1443.2 2596.5 1159.8 1633.7 2793.5 2.9304 3.0358 5.9662270 5503.0 0.001303 0.035622 1177.9 1415.7 2593.7 1185.1 1604.6 2789.7 2.9762 2.9542 5.9305275 5946.4 0.001317 0.032767 1202.9 1387.4 2590.3 1210.7 1574.5 2785.2 3.0221 2.8723 5.8944

280 6416.6 0.001333 0.030153 1228.2 1358.2 2586.4 1236.7 1543.2 2779.9 3.0681 2.7898 5.8579285 6914.6 0.001349 0.027756 1253.7 1328.1 2581.8 1263.1 1510.7 2773.7 3.1144 2.7066 5.8210290 7441.8 0.001366 0.025554 1279.7 1296.9 2576.5 1289.8 1476.9 2766.7 3.1608 2.6225 5.7834295 7999.0 0.001384 0.023528 1306.0 1264.5 2570.5 1317.1 1441.6 2758.7 3.2076 2.5374 5.7450300 8587.9 0.001404 0.021659 1332.7 1230.9 2563.6 1344.8 1404.8 2749.6 3.2548 2.4511 5.7059

305 9209.4 0.001425 0.019932 1360.0 1195.9 2555.8 1373.1 1366.3 2739.4 3.3024 2.3633 5.6657310 9865.0 0.001447 0.018333 1387.7 1159.3 2547.1 1402.0 1325.9 2727.9 3.3506 2.2737 5.6243315 10,556 0.001472 0.016849 1416.1 1121.1 2537.2 1431.6 1283.4 2715.0 3.3994 2.1821 5.5816320 11,284 0.001499 0.015470 1445.1 1080.9 2526.0 1462.0 1238.5 2700.6 3.4491 2.0881 5.5372325 12,051 0.001528 0.014183 1475.0 1038.5 2513.4 1493.4 1191.0 2684.3 3.4998 1.9911 5.4908

330 12,858 0.001560 0.012979 1505.7 993.5 2499.2 1525.8 1140.3 2666.0 3.5516 1.8906 5.4422335 13,707 0.001597 0.011848 1537.5 945.5 2483.0 1559.4 1086.0 2645.4 3.6050 1.7857 5.3907340 14,601 0.001638 0.010783 1570.7 893.8 2464.5 1594.6 1027.4 2622.0 3.6602 1.6756 5.3358345 15,541 0.001685 0.009772 1605.5 837.7 2443.2 1631.7 963.4 2595.1 3.7179 1.5585 5.2765350 16,529 0.001741 0.008806 1642.4 775.9 2418.3 1671.2 892.7 2563.9 3.7788 1.4326 5.2114

355 17,570 0.001808 0.007872 1682.2 706.4 2388.6 1714.0 812.9 2526.9 3.8442 1.2942 5.1384360 18,666 0.001895 0.006950 1726.2 625.7 2351.9 1761.5 720.1 2481.6 3.9165 1.1373 5.0537365 19,822 0.002015 0.006009 1777.2 526.4 2303.6 1817.2 605.5 2422.7 4.0004 0.9489 4.9493370 21,044 0.002217 0.004953 1844.5 385.6 2230.1 1891.2 443.1 2334.3 4.1119 0.6890 4.8009373.95 22,064 0.003106 0.003106 2015.7 0 2015.7 2084.3 0 2084.3 4.4070 0 4.4070

Source: Tables A–4 through A–8 are generated using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Theroutine used in calculations is the highly accurate Steam_IAPWS, which incorporates the 1995 Formulation for the Thermodynamic Properties of OrdinaryWater Substance for General and Scientific Use, issued by The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS). This formulationreplaces the 1984 formulation of Haar, Gallagher, and Kell (NBS/NRC Steam Tables, Hemisphere Publishing Co., 1984), which is also available in EESas the routine STEAM. The new formulation is based on the correlations of Saul and Wagner (J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 16, 893, 1987) with modifica-tions to adjust to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. The modifications are described by Wagner and Pruss (J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 22,783, 1993). The properties of ice are based on Hyland and Wexler, “Formulations for the Thermodynamic Properties of the Saturated Phases of H2Ofrom 173.15 K to 473.15 K,” ASHRAE Trans., Part 2A, Paper 2793, 1983.

Appendix 1 | 917

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TABLE A–5Saturated water—Pressure table

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy,m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg · K

Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat.Press., temp., liquid, vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor,P kPa Tsat °C vf vg uf ufg ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg

1.0 6.97 0.001000 129.19 29.302 2355.2 2384.5 29.303 2484.4 2513.7 0.1059 8.8690 8.97491.5 13.02 0.001001 87.964 54.686 2338.1 2392.8 54.688 2470.1 2524.7 0.1956 8.6314 8.82702.0 17.50 0.001001 66.990 73.431 2325.5 2398.9 73.433 2459.5 2532.9 0.2606 8.4621 8.72272.5 21.08 0.001002 54.242 88.422 2315.4 2403.8 88.424 2451.0 2539.4 0.3118 8.3302 8.64213.0 24.08 0.001003 45.654 100.98 2306.9 2407.9 100.98 2443.9 2544.8 0.3543 8.2222 8.5765

4.0 28.96 0.001004 34.791 121.39 2293.1 2414.5 121.39 2432.3 2553.7 0.4224 8.0510 8.47345.0 32.87 0.001005 28.185 137.75 2282.1 2419.8 137.75 2423.0 2560.7 0.4762 7.9176 8.39387.5 40.29 0.001008 19.233 168.74 2261.1 2429.8 168.75 2405.3 2574.0 0.5763 7.6738 8.2501

10 45.81 0.001010 14.670 191.79 2245.4 2437.2 191.81 2392.1 2583.9 0.6492 7.4996 8.148815 53.97 0.001014 10.020 225.93 2222.1 2448.0 225.94 2372.3 2598.3 0.7549 7.2522 8.0071

20 60.06 0.001017 7.6481 251.40 2204.6 2456.0 251.42 2357.5 2608.9 0.8320 7.0752 7.907325 64.96 0.001020 6.2034 271.93 2190.4 2462.4 271.96 2345.5 2617.5 0.8932 6.9370 7.830230 69.09 0.001022 5.2287 289.24 2178.5 2467.7 289.27 2335.3 2624.6 0.9441 6.8234 7.767540 75.86 0.001026 3.9933 317.58 2158.8 2476.3 317.62 2318.4 2636.1 1.0261 6.6430 7.669150 81.32 0.001030 3.2403 340.49 2142.7 2483.2 340.54 2304.7 2645.2 1.0912 6.5019 7.5931

75 91.76 0.001037 2.2172 384.36 2111.8 2496.1 384.44 2278.0 2662.4 1.2132 6.2426 7.4558100 99.61 0.001043 1.6941 417.40 2088.2 2505.6 417.51 2257.5 2675.0 1.3028 6.0562 7.3589101.325 99.97 0.001043 1.6734 418.95 2087.0 2506.0 419.06 2256.5 2675.6 1.3069 6.0476 7.3545125 105.97 0.001048 1.3750 444.23 2068.8 2513.0 444.36 2240.6 2684.9 1.3741 5.9100 7.2841150 111.35 0.001053 1.1594 466.97 2052.3 2519.2 467.13 2226.0 2693.1 1.4337 5.7894 7.2231

175 116.04 0.001057 1.0037 486.82 2037.7 2524.5 487.01 2213.1 2700.2 1.4850 5.6865 7.1716200 120.21 0.001061 0.88578 504.50 2024.6 2529.1 504.71 2201.6 2706.3 1.5302 5.5968 7.1270225 123.97 0.001064 0.79329 520.47 2012.7 2533.2 520.71 2191.0 2711.7 1.5706 5.5171 7.0877250 127.41 0.001067 0.71873 535.08 2001.8 2536.8 535.35 2181.2 2716.5 1.6072 5.4453 7.0525275 130.58 0.001070 0.65732 548.57 1991.6 2540.1 548.86 2172.0 2720.9 1.6408 5.3800 7.0207

300 133.52 0.001073 0.60582 561.11 1982.1 2543.2 561.43 2163.5 2724.9 1.6717 5.3200 6.9917325 136.27 0.001076 0.56199 572.84 1973.1 2545.9 573.19 2155.4 2728.6 1.7005 5.2645 6.9650350 138.86 0.001079 0.52422 583.89 1964.6 2548.5 584.26 2147.7 2732.0 1.7274 5.2128 6.9402375 141.30 0.001081 0.49133 594.32 1956.6 2550.9 594.73 2140.4 2735.1 1.7526 5.1645 6.9171400 143.61 0.001084 0.46242 604.22 1948.9 2553.1 604.66 2133.4 2738.1 1.7765 5.1191 6.8955

450 147.90 0.001088 0.41392 622.65 1934.5 2557.1 623.14 2120.3 2743.4 1.8205 5.0356 6.8561500 151.83 0.001093 0.37483 639.54 1921.2 2560.7 640.09 2108.0 2748.1 1.8604 4.9603 6.8207550 155.46 0.001097 0.34261 655.16 1908.8 2563.9 655.77 2096.6 2752.4 1.8970 4.8916 6.7886600 158.83 0.001101 0.31560 669.72 1897.1 2566.8 670.38 2085.8 2756.2 1.9308 4.8285 6.7593650 161.98 0.001104 0.29260 683.37 1886.1 2569.4 684.08 2075.5 2759.6 1.9623 4.7699 6.7322

700 164.95 0.001108 0.27278 696.23 1875.6 2571.8 697.00 2065.8 2762.8 1.9918 4.7153 6.7071750 167.75 0.001111 0.25552 708.40 1865.6 2574.0 709.24 2056.4 2765.7 2.0195 4.6642 6.6837

918 | Thermodynamics

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TABLE A–5Saturated water—Pressure table (Continued)

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy,m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg · K

Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat.Press., temp., liquid, vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor,P kPa Tsat °C vf vg uf ufg ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg

800 170.41 0.001115 0.24035 719.97 1856.1 2576.0 720.87 2047.5 2768.3 2.0457 4.6160 6.6616850 172.94 0.001118 0.22690 731.00 1846.9 2577.9 731.95 2038.8 2770.8 2.0705 4.5705 6.6409900 175.35 0.001121 0.21489 741.55 1838.1 2579.6 742.56 2030.5 2773.0 2.0941 4.5273 6.6213950 177.66 0.001124 0.20411 751.67 1829.6 2581.3 752.74 2022.4 2775.2 2.1166 4.4862 6.6027

1000 179.88 0.001127 0.19436 761.39 1821.4 2582.8 762.51 2014.6 2777.1 2.1381 4.4470 6.5850

1100 184.06 0.001133 0.17745 779.78 1805.7 2585.5 781.03 1999.6 2780.7 2.1785 4.3735 6.55201200 187.96 0.001138 0.16326 796.96 1790.9 2587.8 798.33 1985.4 2783.8 2.2159 4.3058 6.52171300 191.60 0.001144 0.15119 813.10 1776.8 2589.9 814.59 1971.9 2786.5 2.2508 4.2428 6.49361400 195.04 0.001149 0.14078 828.35 1763.4 2591.8 829.96 1958.9 2788.9 2.2835 4.1840 6.46751500 198.29 0.001154 0.13171 842.82 1750.6 2593.4 844.55 1946.4 2791.0 2.3143 4.1287 6.4430

1750 205.72 0.001166 0.11344 876.12 1720.6 2596.7 878.16 1917.1 2795.2 2.3844 4.0033 6.38772000 212.38 0.001177 0.099587 906.12 1693.0 2599.1 908.47 1889.8 2798.3 2.4467 3.8923 6.33902250 218.41 0.001187 0.088717 933.54 1667.3 2600.9 936.21 1864.3 2800.5 2.5029 3.7926 6.29542500 223.95 0.001197 0.079952 958.87 1643.2 2602.1 961.87 1840.1 2801.9 2.5542 3.7016 6.25583000 233.85 0.001217 0.066667 1004.6 1598.5 2603.2 1008.3 1794.9 2803.2 2.6454 3.5402 6.1856

3500 242.56 0.001235 0.057061 1045.4 1557.6 2603.0 1049.7 1753.0 2802.7 2.7253 3.3991 6.12444000 250.35 0.001252 0.049779 1082.4 1519.3 2601.7 1087.4 1713.5 2800.8 2.7966 3.2731 6.06965000 263.94 0.001286 0.039448 1148.1 1448.9 2597.0 1154.5 1639.7 2794.2 2.9207 3.0530 5.97376000 275.59 0.001319 0.032449 1205.8 1384.1 2589.9 1213.8 1570.9 2784.6 3.0275 2.8627 5.89027000 285.83 0.001352 0.027378 1258.0 1323.0 2581.0 1267.5 1505.2 2772.6 3.1220 2.6927 5.8148

8000 295.01 0.001384 0.023525 1306.0 1264.5 2570.5 1317.1 1441.6 2758.7 3.2077 2.5373 5.74509000 303.35 0.001418 0.020489 1350.9 1207.6 2558.5 1363.7 1379.3 2742.9 3.2866 2.3925 5.6791

10,000 311.00 0.001452 0.018028 1393.3 1151.8 2545.2 1407.8 1317.6 2725.5 3.3603 2.2556 5.615911,000 318.08 0.001488 0.015988 1433.9 1096.6 2530.4 1450.2 1256.1 2706.3 3.4299 2.1245 5.554412,000 324.68 0.001526 0.014264 1473.0 1041.3 2514.3 1491.3 1194.1 2685.4 3.4964 1.9975 5.4939

13,000 330.85 0.001566 0.012781 1511.0 985.5 2496.6 1531.4 1131.3 2662.7 3.5606 1.8730 5.433614,000 336.67 0.001610 0.011487 1548.4 928.7 2477.1 1571.0 1067.0 2637.9 3.6232 1.7497 5.372815,000 342.16 0.001657 0.010341 1585.5 870.3 2455.7 1610.3 1000.5 2610.8 3.6848 1.6261 5.310816,000 347.36 0.001710 0.009312 1622.6 809.4 2432.0 1649.9 931.1 2581.0 3.7461 1.5005 5.246617,000 352.29 0.001770 0.008374 1660.2 745.1 2405.4 1690.3 857.4 2547.7 3.8082 1.3709 5.1791

18,000 356.99 0.001840 0.007504 1699.1 675.9 2375.0 1732.2 777.8 2510.0 3.8720 1.2343 5.106419,000 361.47 0.001926 0.006677 1740.3 598.9 2339.2 1776.8 689.2 2466.0 3.9396 1.0860 5.025620,000 365.75 0.002038 0.005862 1785.8 509.0 2294.8 1826.6 585.5 2412.1 4.0146 0.9164 4.931021,000 369.83 0.002207 0.004994 1841.6 391.9 2233.5 1888.0 450.4 2338.4 4.1071 0.7005 4.807622,000 373.71 0.002703 0.003644 1951.7 140.8 2092.4 2011.1 161.5 2172.6 4.2942 0.2496 4.543922,064 373.95 0.003106 0.003106 2015.7 0 2015.7 2084.3 0 2084.3 4.4070 0 4.4070

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920 | Thermodynamics

TABLE A–6Superheated water

T v u h s v u h s v u h s°C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg � K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg � K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg � K

P � 0.01 MPa (45.81°C)* P � 0.05 MPa (81.32°C) P � 0.10 MPa (99.61°C)

Sat.† 14.670 2437.2 2583.9 8.1488 3.2403 2483.2 2645.2 7.5931 1.6941 2505.6 2675.0 7.358950 14.867 2443.3 2592.0 8.1741

100 17.196 2515.5 2687.5 8.4489 3.4187 2511.5 2682.4 7.6953 1.6959 2506.2 2675.8 7.3611150 19.513 2587.9 2783.0 8.6893 3.8897 2585.7 2780.2 7.9413 1.9367 2582.9 2776.6 7.6148200 21.826 2661.4 2879.6 8.9049 4.3562 2660.0 2877.8 8.1592 2.1724 2658.2 2875.5 7.8356250 24.136 2736.1 2977.5 9.1015 4.8206 2735.1 2976.2 8.3568 2.4062 2733.9 2974.5 8.0346300 26.446 2812.3 3076.7 9.2827 5.2841 2811.6 3075.8 8.5387 2.6389 2810.7 3074.5 8.2172400 31.063 2969.3 3280.0 9.6094 6.2094 2968.9 3279.3 8.8659 3.1027 2968.3 3278.6 8.5452500 35.680 3132.9 3489.7 9.8998 7.1338 3132.6 3489.3 9.1566 3.5655 3132.2 3488.7 8.8362600 40.296 3303.3 3706.3 10.1631 8.0577 3303.1 3706.0 9.4201 4.0279 3302.8 3705.6 9.0999700 44.911 3480.8 3929.9 10.4056 8.9813 3480.6 3929.7 9.6626 4.4900 3480.4 3929.4 9.3424800 49.527 3665.4 4160.6 10.6312 9.9047 3665.2 4160.4 9.8883 4.9519 3665.0 4160.2 9.5682900 54.143 3856.9 4398.3 10.8429 10.8280 3856.8 4398.2 10.1000 5.4137 3856.7 4398.0 9.7800

1000 58.758 4055.3 4642.8 11.0429 11.7513 4055.2 4642.7 10.3000 5.8755 4055.0 4642.6 9.98001100 63.373 4260.0 4893.8 11.2326 12.6745 4259.9 4893.7 10.4897 6.3372 4259.8 4893.6 10.16981200 67.989 4470.9 5150.8 11.4132 13.5977 4470.8 5150.7 10.6704 6.7988 4470.7 5150.6 10.35041300 72.604 4687.4 5413.4 11.5857 14.5209 4687.3 5413.3 10.8429 7.2605 4687.2 5413.3 10.5229

P � 0.20 MPa (120.21°C) P � 0.30 MPa (133.52°C) P � 0.40 MPa (143.61°C)

Sat. 0.88578 2529.1 2706.3 7.1270 0.60582 2543.2 2724.9 6.9917 0.46242 2553.1 2738.1 6.8955150 0.95986 2577.1 2769.1 7.2810 0.63402 2571.0 2761.2 7.0792 0.47088 2564.4 2752.8 6.9306200 1.08049 2654.6 2870.7 7.5081 0.71643 2651.0 2865.9 7.3132 0.53434 2647.2 2860.9 7.1723250 1.19890 2731.4 2971.2 7.7100 0.79645 2728.9 2967.9 7.5180 0.59520 2726.4 2964.5 7.3804300 1.31623 2808.8 3072.1 7.8941 0.87535 2807.0 3069.6 7.7037 0.65489 2805.1 3067.1 7.5677400 1.54934 2967.2 3277.0 8.2236 1.03155 2966.0 3275.5 8.0347 0.77265 2964.9 3273.9 7.9003500 1.78142 3131.4 3487.7 8.5153 1.18672 3130.6 3486.6 8.3271 0.88936 3129.8 3485.5 8.1933600 2.01302 3302.2 3704.8 8.7793 1.34139 3301.6 3704.0 8.5915 1.00558 3301.0 3703.3 8.4580700 2.24434 3479.9 3928.8 9.0221 1.49580 3479.5 3928.2 8.8345 1.12152 3479.0 3927.6 8.7012800 2.47550 3664.7 4159.8 9.2479 1.65004 3664.3 4159.3 9.0605 1.23730 3663.9 4158.9 8.9274900 2.70656 3856.3 4397.7 9.4598 1.80417 3856.0 4397.3 9.2725 1.35298 3855.7 4396.9 9.1394

1000 2.93755 4054.8 4642.3 9.6599 1.95824 4054.5 4642.0 9.4726 1.46859 4054.3 4641.7 9.33961100 3.16848 4259.6 4893.3 9.8497 2.11226 4259.4 4893.1 9.6624 1.58414 4259.2 4892.9 9.52951200 3.39938 4470.5 5150.4 10.0304 2.26624 4470.3 5150.2 9.8431 1.69966 4470.2 5150.0 9.71021300 3.63026 4687.1 5413.1 10.2029 2.42019 4686.9 5413.0 10.0157 1.81516 4686.7 5412.8 9.8828

P � 0.50 MPa (151.83°C) P � 0.60 MPa (158.83°C) P � 0.80 MPa (170.41°C)

Sat. 0.37483 2560.7 2748.1 6.8207 0.31560 2566.8 2756.2 6.7593 0.24035 2576.0 2768.3 6.6616200 0.42503 2643.3 2855.8 7.0610 0.35212 2639.4 2850.6 6.9683 0.26088 2631.1 2839.8 6.8177250 0.47443 2723.8 2961.0 7.2725 0.39390 2721.2 2957.6 7.1833 0.29321 2715.9 2950.4 7.0402300 0.52261 2803.3 3064.6 7.4614 0.43442 2801.4 3062.0 7.3740 0.32416 2797.5 3056.9 7.2345350 0.57015 2883.0 3168.1 7.6346 0.47428 2881.6 3166.1 7.5481 0.35442 2878.6 3162.2 7.4107400 0.61731 2963.7 3272.4 7.7956 0.51374 2962.5 3270.8 7.7097 0.38429 2960.2 3267.7 7.5735500 0.71095 3129.0 3484.5 8.0893 0.59200 3128.2 3483.4 8.0041 0.44332 3126.6 3481.3 7.8692600 0.80409 3300.4 3702.5 8.3544 0.66976 3299.8 3701.7 8.2695 0.50186 3298.7 3700.1 8.1354700 0.89696 3478.6 3927.0 8.5978 0.74725 3478.1 3926.4 8.5132 0.56011 3477.2 3925.3 8.3794800 0.98966 3663.6 4158.4 8.8240 0.82457 3663.2 4157.9 8.7395 0.61820 3662.5 4157.0 8.6061900 1.08227 3855.4 4396.6 9.0362 0.90179 3855.1 4396.2 8.9518 0.67619 3854.5 4395.5 8.8185

1000 1.17480 4054.0 4641.4 9.2364 0.97893 4053.8 4641.1 9.1521 0.73411 4053.3 4640.5 9.01891100 1.26728 4259.0 4892.6 9.4263 1.05603 4258.8 4892.4 9.3420 0.79197 4258.3 4891.9 9.20901200 1.35972 4470.0 5149.8 9.6071 1.13309 4469.8 5149.6 9.5229 0.84980 4469.4 5149.3 9.38981300 1.45214 4686.6 5412.6 9.7797 1.21012 4686.4 5412.5 9.6955 0.90761 4686.1 5412.2 9.5625

*The temperature in parentheses is the saturation temperature at the specified pressure.† Properties of saturated vapor at the specified pressure.

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Appendix 1 | 921

TABLE A–6Superheated water (Continued)

T v u h s v u h s v u h s°C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg � K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg � K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg � K

P � 1.00 MPa (179.88�C) P � 1.20 MPa (187.96�C) P � 1.40 MPa (195.04�C)

Sat. 0.19437 2582.8 2777.1 6.5850 0.16326 2587.8 2783.8 6.5217 0.14078 2591.8 2788.9 6.4675200 0.20602 2622.3 2828.3 6.6956 0.16934 2612.9 2816.1 6.5909 0.14303 2602.7 2803.0 6.4975250 0.23275 2710.4 2943.1 6.9265 0.19241 2704.7 2935.6 6.8313 0.16356 2698.9 2927.9 6.7488300 0.25799 2793.7 3051.6 7.1246 0.21386 2789.7 3046.3 7.0335 0.18233 2785.7 3040.9 6.9553350 0.28250 2875.7 3158.2 7.3029 0.23455 2872.7 3154.2 7.2139 0.20029 2869.7 3150.1 7.1379400 0.30661 2957.9 3264.5 7.4670 0.25482 2955.5 3261.3 7.3793 0.21782 2953.1 3258.1 7.3046500 0.35411 3125.0 3479.1 7.7642 0.29464 3123.4 3477.0 7.6779 0.25216 3121.8 3474.8 7.6047600 0.40111 3297.5 3698.6 8.0311 0.33395 3296.3 3697.0 7.9456 0.28597 3295.1 3695.5 7.8730700 0.44783 3476.3 3924.1 8.2755 0.37297 3475.3 3922.9 8.1904 0.31951 3474.4 3921.7 8.1183800 0.49438 3661.7 4156.1 8.5024 0.41184 3661.0 4155.2 8.4176 0.35288 3660.3 4154.3 8.3458900 0.54083 3853.9 4394.8 8.7150 0.45059 3853.3 4394.0 8.6303 0.38614 3852.7 4393.3 8.5587

1000 0.58721 4052.7 4640.0 8.9155 0.48928 4052.2 4639.4 8.8310 0.41933 4051.7 4638.8 8.75951100 0.63354 4257.9 4891.4 9.1057 0.52792 4257.5 4891.0 9.0212 0.45247 4257.0 4890.5 8.94971200 0.67983 4469.0 5148.9 9.2866 0.56652 4468.7 5148.5 9.2022 0.48558 4468.3 5148.1 9.13081300 0.72610 4685.8 5411.9 9.4593 0.60509 4685.5 5411.6 9.3750 0.51866 4685.1 5411.3 9.3036

P � 1.60 MPa (201.37�C) P � 1.80 MPa (207.11�C) P � 2.00 MPa (212.38�C)

Sat. 0.12374 2594.8 2792.8 6.4200 0.11037 2597.3 2795.9 6.3775 0.09959 2599.1 2798.3 6.3390225 0.13293 2645.1 2857.8 6.5537 0.11678 2637.0 2847.2 6.4825 0.10381 2628.5 2836.1 6.4160250 0.14190 2692.9 2919.9 6.6753 0.12502 2686.7 2911.7 6.6088 0.11150 2680.3 2903.3 6.5475300 0.15866 2781.6 3035.4 6.8864 0.14025 2777.4 3029.9 6.8246 0.12551 2773.2 3024.2 6.7684350 0.17459 2866.6 3146.0 7.0713 0.15460 2863.6 3141.9 7.0120 0.13860 2860.5 3137.7 6.9583400 0.19007 2950.8 3254.9 7.2394 0.16849 2948.3 3251.6 7.1814 0.15122 2945.9 3248.4 7.1292500 0.22029 3120.1 3472.6 7.5410 0.19551 3118.5 3470.4 7.4845 0.17568 3116.9 3468.3 7.4337600 0.24999 3293.9 3693.9 7.8101 0.22200 3292.7 3692.3 7.7543 0.19962 3291.5 3690.7 7.7043700 0.27941 3473.5 3920.5 8.0558 0.24822 3472.6 3919.4 8.0005 0.22326 3471.7 3918.2 7.9509800 0.30865 3659.5 4153.4 8.2834 0.27426 3658.8 4152.4 8.2284 0.24674 3658.0 4151.5 8.1791900 0.33780 3852.1 4392.6 8.4965 0.30020 3851.5 4391.9 8.4417 0.27012 3850.9 4391.1 8.3925

1000 0.36687 4051.2 4638.2 8.6974 0.32606 4050.7 4637.6 8.6427 0.29342 4050.2 4637.1 8.59361100 0.39589 4256.6 4890.0 8.8878 0.35188 4256.2 4889.6 8.8331 0.31667 4255.7 4889.1 8.78421200 0.42488 4467.9 5147.7 9.0689 0.37766 4467.6 5147.3 9.0143 0.33989 4467.2 5147.0 8.96541300 0.45383 4684.8 5410.9 9.2418 0.40341 4684.5 5410.6 9.1872 0.36308 4684.2 5410.3 9.1384

P � 2.50 MPa (223.95�C) P � 3.00 MPa (233.85�C) P � 3.50 MPa (242.56�C)

Sat. 0.07995 2602.1 2801.9 6.2558 0.06667 2603.2 2803.2 6.1856 0.05706 2603.0 2802.7 6.1244225 0.08026 2604.8 2805.5 6.2629250 0.08705 2663.3 2880.9 6.4107 0.07063 2644.7 2856.5 6.2893 0.05876 2624.0 2829.7 6.1764300 0.09894 2762.2 3009.6 6.6459 0.08118 2750.8 2994.3 6.5412 0.06845 2738.8 2978.4 6.4484350 0.10979 2852.5 3127.0 6.8424 0.09056 2844.4 3116.1 6.7450 0.07680 2836.0 3104.9 6.6601400 0.12012 2939.8 3240.1 7.0170 0.09938 2933.6 3231.7 6.9235 0.08456 2927.2 3223.2 6.8428450 0.13015 3026.2 3351.6 7.1768 0.10789 3021.2 3344.9 7.0856 0.09198 3016.1 3338.1 7.0074500 0.13999 3112.8 3462.8 7.3254 0.11620 3108.6 3457.2 7.2359 0.09919 3104.5 3451.7 7.1593600 0.15931 3288.5 3686.8 7.5979 0.13245 3285.5 3682.8 7.5103 0.11325 3282.5 3678.9 7.4357700 0.17835 3469.3 3915.2 7.8455 0.14841 3467.0 3912.2 7.7590 0.12702 3464.7 3909.3 7.6855800 0.19722 3656.2 4149.2 8.0744 0.16420 3654.3 4146.9 7.9885 0.14061 3652.5 4144.6 7.9156900 0.21597 3849.4 4389.3 8.2882 0.17988 3847.9 4387.5 8.2028 0.15410 3846.4 4385.7 8.1304

1000 0.23466 4049.0 4635.6 8.4897 0.19549 4047.7 4634.2 8.4045 0.16751 4046.4 4632.7 8.33241100 0.25330 4254.7 4887.9 8.6804 0.21105 4253.6 4886.7 8.5955 0.18087 4252.5 4885.6 8.52361200 0.27190 4466.3 5146.0 8.8618 0.22658 4465.3 5145.1 8.7771 0.19420 4464.4 5144.1 8.70531300 0.29048 4683.4 5409.5 9.0349 0.24207 4682.6 5408.8 8.9502 0.20750 4681.8 5408.0 8.8786

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TABLE A–6Superheated water (Continued)

T v u h s v u h s v u h s°C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg � K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg � K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg � K

P � 4.0 MPa (250.35�C) P � 4.5 MPa (257.44�C) P � 5.0 MPa (263.94�C)

Sat. 0.04978 2601.7 2800.8 6.0696 0.04406 2599.7 2798.0 6.0198 0.03945 2597.0 2794.2 5.9737275 0.05461 2668.9 2887.3 6.2312 0.04733 2651.4 2864.4 6.1429 0.04144 2632.3 2839.5 6.0571300 0.05887 2726.2 2961.7 6.3639 0.05138 2713.0 2944.2 6.2854 0.04535 2699.0 2925.7 6.2111350 0.06647 2827.4 3093.3 6.5843 0.05842 2818.6 3081.5 6.5153 0.05197 2809.5 3069.3 6.4516400 0.07343 2920.8 3214.5 6.7714 0.06477 2914.2 3205.7 6.7071 0.05784 2907.5 3196.7 6.6483450 0.08004 3011.0 3331.2 6.9386 0.07076 3005.8 3324.2 6.8770 0.06332 3000.6 3317.2 6.8210500 0.08644 3100.3 3446.0 7.0922 0.07652 3096.0 3440.4 7.0323 0.06858 3091.8 3434.7 6.9781600 0.09886 3279.4 3674.9 7.3706 0.08766 3276.4 3670.9 7.3127 0.07870 3273.3 3666.9 7.2605700 0.11098 3462.4 3906.3 7.6214 0.09850 3460.0 3903.3 7.5647 0.08852 3457.7 3900.3 7.5136800 0.12292 3650.6 4142.3 7.8523 0.10916 3648.8 4140.0 7.7962 0.09816 3646.9 4137.7 7.7458900 0.13476 3844.8 4383.9 8.0675 0.11972 3843.3 4382.1 8.0118 0.10769 3841.8 4380.2 7.9619

1000 0.14653 4045.1 4631.2 8.2698 0.13020 4043.9 4629.8 8.2144 0.11715 4042.6 4628.3 8.16481100 0.15824 4251.4 4884.4 8.4612 0.14064 4250.4 4883.2 8.4060 0.12655 4249.3 4882.1 8.35661200 0.16992 4463.5 5143.2 8.6430 0.15103 4462.6 5142.2 8.5880 0.13592 4461.6 5141.3 8.53881300 0.18157 4680.9 5407.2 8.8164 0.16140 4680.1 5406.5 8.7616 0.14527 4679.3 5405.7 8.7124

P � 6.0 MPa (275.59�C) P � 7.0 MPa (285.83�C) P � 8.0 MPa (295.01�C)

Sat. 0.03245 2589.9 2784.6 5.8902 0.027378 2581.0 2772.6 5.8148 0.023525 2570.5 2758.7 5.7450300 0.03619 2668.4 2885.6 6.0703 0.029492 2633.5 2839.9 5.9337 0.024279 2592.3 2786.5 5.7937350 0.04225 2790.4 3043.9 6.3357 0.035262 2770.1 3016.9 6.2305 0.029975 2748.3 2988.1 6.1321400 0.04742 2893.7 3178.3 6.5432 0.039958 2879.5 3159.2 6.4502 0.034344 2864.6 3139.4 6.3658450 0.05217 2989.9 3302.9 6.7219 0.044187 2979.0 3288.3 6.6353 0.038194 2967.8 3273.3 6.5579500 0.05667 3083.1 3423.1 6.8826 0.048157 3074.3 3411.4 6.8000 0.041767 3065.4 3399.5 6.7266550 0.06102 3175.2 3541.3 7.0308 0.051966 3167.9 3531.6 6.9507 0.045172 3160.5 3521.8 6.8800600 0.06527 3267.2 3658.8 7.1693 0.055665 3261.0 3650.6 7.0910 0.048463 3254.7 3642.4 7.0221700 0.07355 3453.0 3894.3 7.4247 0.062850 3448.3 3888.3 7.3487 0.054829 3443.6 3882.2 7.2822800 0.08165 3643.2 4133.1 7.6582 0.069856 3639.5 4128.5 7.5836 0.061011 3635.7 4123.8 7.5185900 0.08964 3838.8 4376.6 7.8751 0.076750 3835.7 4373.0 7.8014 0.067082 3832.7 4369.3 7.7372

1000 0.09756 4040.1 4625.4 8.0786 0.083571 4037.5 4622.5 8.0055 0.073079 4035.0 4619.6 7.94191100 0.10543 4247.1 4879.7 8.2709 0.090341 4245.0 4877.4 8.1982 0.079025 4242.8 4875.0 8.13501200 0.11326 4459.8 5139.4 8.4534 0.097075 4457.9 5137.4 8.3810 0.084934 4456.1 5135.5 8.31811300 0.12107 4677.7 5404.1 8.6273 0.103781 4676.1 5402.6 8.5551 0.090817 4674.5 5401.0 8.4925

P � 9.0 MPa (303.35�C) P � 10.0 MPa (311.00�C) P � 12.5 MPa (327.81�C)

Sat. 0.020489 2558.5 2742.9 5.6791 0.018028 2545.2 2725.5 5.6159 0.013496 2505.6 2674.3 5.4638325 0.023284 2647.6 2857.1 5.8738 0.019877 2611.6 2810.3 5.7596350 0.025816 2725.0 2957.3 6.0380 0.022440 2699.6 2924.0 5.9460 0.016138 2624.9 2826.6 5.7130400 0.029960 2849.2 3118.8 6.2876 0.026436 2833.1 3097.5 6.2141 0.020030 2789.6 3040.0 6.0433450 0.033524 2956.3 3258.0 6.4872 0.029782 2944.5 3242.4 6.4219 0.023019 2913.7 3201.5 6.2749500 0.036793 3056.3 3387.4 6.6603 0.032811 3047.0 3375.1 6.5995 0.025630 3023.2 3343.6 6.4651550 0.039885 3153.0 3512.0 6.8164 0.035655 3145.4 3502.0 6.7585 0.028033 3126.1 3476.5 6.6317600 0.042861 3248.4 3634.1 6.9605 0.038378 3242.0 3625.8 6.9045 0.030306 3225.8 3604.6 6.7828650 0.045755 3343.4 3755.2 7.0954 0.041018 3338.0 3748.1 7.0408 0.032491 3324.1 3730.2 6.9227700 0.048589 3438.8 3876.1 7.2229 0.043597 3434.0 3870.0 7.1693 0.034612 3422.0 3854.6 7.0540800 0.054132 3632.0 4119.2 7.4606 0.048629 3628.2 4114.5 7.4085 0.038724 3618.8 4102.8 7.2967900 0.059562 3829.6 4365.7 7.6802 0.053547 3826.5 4362.0 7.6290 0.042720 3818.9 4352.9 7.5195

1000 0.064919 4032.4 4616.7 7.8855 0.058391 4029.9 4613.8 7.8349 0.046641 4023.5 4606.5 7.72691100 0.070224 4240.7 4872.7 8.0791 0.063183 4238.5 4870.3 8.0289 0.050510 4233.1 4864.5 7.92201200 0.075492 4454.2 5133.6 8.2625 0.067938 4452.4 5131.7 8.2126 0.054342 4447.7 5127.0 8.10651300 0.080733 4672.9 5399.5 8.4371 0.072667 4671.3 5398.0 8.3874 0.058147 4667.3 5394.1 8.2819

922 | Thermodynamics

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TABLE A–6Superheated water (Concluded)

T v u h s v u h s v u h s°C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg � K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg � K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg � K

P � 15.0 MPa (342.16�C) P � 17.5 MPa (354.67�C) P � 20.0 MPa (365.75�C)

Sat. 0.010341 2455.7 2610.8 5.3108 0.007932 2390.7 2529.5 5.1435 0.005862 2294.8 2412.1 4.9310350 0.011481 2520.9 2693.1 5.4438400 0.015671 2740.6 2975.7 5.8819 0.012463 2684.3 2902.4 5.7211 0.009950 2617.9 2816.9 5.5526450 0.018477 2880.8 3157.9 6.1434 0.015204 2845.4 3111.4 6.0212 0.012721 2807.3 3061.7 5.9043500 0.020828 2998.4 3310.8 6.3480 0.017385 2972.4 3276.7 6.2424 0.014793 2945.3 3241.2 6.1446550 0.022945 3106.2 3450.4 6.5230 0.019305 3085.8 3423.6 6.4266 0.016571 3064.7 3396.2 6.3390600 0.024921 3209.3 3583.1 6.6796 0.021073 3192.5 3561.3 6.5890 0.018185 3175.3 3539.0 6.5075650 0.026804 3310.1 3712.1 6.8233 0.022742 3295.8 3693.8 6.7366 0.019695 3281.4 3675.3 6.6593700 0.028621 3409.8 3839.1 6.9573 0.024342 3397.5 3823.5 6.8735 0.021134 3385.1 3807.8 6.7991800 0.032121 3609.3 4091.1 7.2037 0.027405 3599.7 4079.3 7.1237 0.023870 3590.1 4067.5 7.0531900 0.035503 3811.2 4343.7 7.4288 0.030348 3803.5 4334.6 7.3511 0.026484 3795.7 4325.4 7.2829

1000 0.038808 4017.1 4599.2 7.6378 0.033215 4010.7 4592.0 7.5616 0.029020 4004.3 4584.7 7.49501100 0.042062 4227.7 4858.6 7.8339 0.036029 4222.3 4852.8 7.7588 0.031504 4216.9 4847.0 7.69331200 0.045279 4443.1 5122.3 8.0192 0.038806 4438.5 5117.6 7.9449 0.033952 4433.8 5112.9 7.88021300 0.048469 4663.3 5390.3 8.1952 0.041556 4659.2 5386.5 8.1215 0.036371 4655.2 5382.7 8.0574

P � 25.0 MPa P � 30.0 MPa P � 35.0 MPa

375 0.001978 1799.9 1849.4 4.0345 0.001792 1738.1 1791.9 3.9313 0.001701 1702.8 1762.4 3.8724400 0.006005 2428.5 2578.7 5.1400 0.002798 2068.9 2152.8 4.4758 0.002105 1914.9 1988.6 4.2144425 0.007886 2607.8 2805.0 5.4708 0.005299 2452.9 2611.8 5.1473 0.003434 2253.3 2373.5 4.7751450 0.009176 2721.2 2950.6 5.6759 0.006737 2618.9 2821.0 5.4422 0.004957 2497.5 2671.0 5.1946500 0.011143 2887.3 3165.9 5.9643 0.008691 2824.0 3084.8 5.7956 0.006933 2755.3 2997.9 5.6331550 0.012736 3020.8 3339.2 6.1816 0.010175 2974.5 3279.7 6.0403 0.008348 2925.8 3218.0 5.9093600 0.014140 3140.0 3493.5 6.3637 0.011445 3103.4 3446.8 6.2373 0.009523 3065.6 3399.0 6.1229650 0.015430 3251.9 3637.7 6.5243 0.012590 3221.7 3599.4 6.4074 0.010565 3190.9 3560.7 6.3030700 0.016643 3359.9 3776.0 6.6702 0.013654 3334.3 3743.9 6.5599 0.011523 3308.3 3711.6 6.4623800 0.018922 3570.7 4043.8 6.9322 0.015628 3551.2 4020.0 6.8301 0.013278 3531.6 3996.3 6.7409900 0.021075 3780.2 4307.1 7.1668 0.017473 3764.6 4288.8 7.0695 0.014904 3749.0 4270.6 6.9853

1000 0.023150 3991.5 4570.2 7.3821 0.019240 3978.6 4555.8 7.2880 0.016450 3965.8 4541.5 7.20691100 0.025172 4206.1 4835.4 7.5825 0.020954 4195.2 4823.9 7.4906 0.017942 4184.4 4812.4 7.41181200 0.027157 4424.6 5103.5 7.7710 0.022630 4415.3 5094.2 7.6807 0.019398 4406.1 5085.0 7.60341300 0.029115 4647.2 5375.1 7.9494 0.024279 4639.2 5367.6 7.8602 0.020827 4631.2 5360.2 7.7841

P � 40.0 MPa P � 50.0 MPa P � 60.0 MPa

375 0.001641 1677.0 1742.6 3.8290 0.001560 1638.6 1716.6 3.7642 0.001503 1609.7 1699.9 3.7149400 0.001911 1855.0 1931.4 4.1145 0.001731 1787.8 1874.4 4.0029 0.001633 1745.2 1843.2 3.9317425 0.002538 2097.5 2199.0 4.5044 0.002009 1960.3 2060.7 4.2746 0.001816 1892.9 2001.8 4.1630450 0.003692 2364.2 2511.8 4.9449 0.002487 2160.3 2284.7 4.5896 0.002086 2055.1 2180.2 4.4140500 0.005623 2681.6 2906.5 5.4744 0.003890 2528.1 2722.6 5.1762 0.002952 2393.2 2570.3 4.9356550 0.006985 2875.1 3154.4 5.7857 0.005118 2769.5 3025.4 5.5563 0.003955 2664.6 2901.9 5.3517600 0.008089 3026.8 3350.4 6.0170 0.006108 2947.1 3252.6 5.8245 0.004833 2866.8 3156.8 5.6527650 0.009053 3159.5 3521.6 6.2078 0.006957 3095.6 3443.5 6.0373 0.005591 3031.3 3366.8 5.8867700 0.009930 3282.0 3679.2 6.3740 0.007717 3228.7 3614.6 6.2179 0.006265 3175.4 3551.3 6.0814800 0.011521 3511.8 3972.6 6.6613 0.009073 3472.2 3925.8 6.5225 0.007456 3432.6 3880.0 6.4033900 0.012980 3733.3 4252.5 6.9107 0.010296 3702.0 4216.8 6.7819 0.008519 3670.9 4182.1 6.6725

1000 0.014360 3952.9 4527.3 7.1355 0.011441 3927.4 4499.4 7.0131 0.009504 3902.0 4472.2 6.90991100 0.015686 4173.7 4801.1 7.3425 0.012534 4152.2 4778.9 7.2244 0.010439 4130.9 4757.3 7.12551200 0.016976 4396.9 5075.9 7.5357 0.013590 4378.6 5058.1 7.4207 0.011339 4360.5 5040.8 7.32481300 0.018239 4623.3 5352.8 7.7175 0.014620 4607.5 5338.5 7.6048 0.012213 4591.8 5324.5 7.5111

Appendix 1 | 923

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TABLE A–7Compressed liquid water

T v u h s v u h s v u h s°C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg � K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg � K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg � K

P � 5 MPa (263.94�C) P � 10 MPa (311.00�C) P � 15 MPa (342.16�C)

Sat. 0.0012862 1148.1 1154.5 2.9207 0.0014522 1393.3 1407.9 3.3603 0.0016572 1585.5 1610.3 3.68480 0.0009977 0.04 5.03 0.0001 0.0009952 0.12 10.07 0.0003 0.0009928 0.18 15.07 0.0004

20 0.0009996 83.61 88.61 0.2954 0.0009973 83.31 93.28 0.2943 0.0009951 83.01 97.93 0.293240 0.0010057 166.92 171.95 0.5705 0.0010035 166.33 176.37 0.5685 0.0010013 165.75 180.77 0.566660 0.0010149 250.29 255.36 0.8287 0.0010127 249.43 259.55 0.8260 0.0010105 248.58 263.74 0.823480 0.0010267 333.82 338.96 1.0723 0.0010244 332.69 342.94 1.0691 0.0010221 331.59 346.92 1.0659

100 0.0010410 417.65 422.85 1.3034 0.0010385 416.23 426.62 1.2996 0.0010361 414.85 430.39 1.2958120 0.0010576 501.91 507.19 1.5236 0.0010549 500.18 510.73 1.5191 0.0010522 498.50 514.28 1.5148140 0.0010769 586.80 592.18 1.7344 0.0010738 584.72 595.45 1.7293 0.0010708 582.69 598.75 1.7243160 0.0010988 672.55 678.04 1.9374 0.0010954 670.06 681.01 1.9316 0.0010920 667.63 684.01 1.9259180 0.0011240 759.47 765.09 2.1338 0.0011200 756.48 767.68 2.1271 0.0011160 753.58 770.32 2.1206200 0.0011531 847.92 853.68 2.3251 0.0011482 844.32 855.80 2.3174 0.0011435 840.84 858.00 2.3100220 0.0011868 938.39 944.32 2.5127 0.0011809 934.01 945.82 2.5037 0.0011752 929.81 947.43 2.4951240 0.0012268 1031.6 1037.7 2.6983 0.0012192 1026.2 1038.3 2.6876 0.0012121 1021.0 1039.2 2.6774260 0.0012755 1128.5 1134.9 2.8841 0.0012653 1121.6 1134.3 2.8710 0.0012560 1115.1 1134.0 2.8586280 0.0013226 1221.8 1235.0 3.0565 0.0013096 1213.4 1233.0 3.0410300 0.0013980 1329.4 1343.3 3.2488 0.0013783 1317.6 1338.3 3.2279320 0.0014733 1431.9 1454.0 3.4263340 0.0016311 1567.9 1592.4 3.6555

P � 20 MPa (365.75�C) P � 30 MPa P � 50 MPa

Sat. 0.0020378 1785.8 1826.6 4.01460 0.0009904 0.23 20.03 0.0005 0.0009857 0.29 29.86 0.0003 0.0009767 0.29 49.13 �0.0010

20 0.0009929 82.71 102.57 0.2921 0.0009886 82.11 111.77 0.2897 0.0009805 80.93 129.95 0.284540 0.0009992 165.17 185.16 0.5646 0.0009951 164.05 193.90 0.5607 0.0009872 161.90 211.25 0.552860 0.0010084 247.75 267.92 0.8208 0.0010042 246.14 276.26 0.8156 0.0009962 243.08 292.88 0.805580 0.0010199 330.50 350.90 1.0627 0.0010155 328.40 358.86 1.0564 0.0010072 324.42 374.78 1.0442

100 0.0010337 413.50 434.17 1.2920 0.0010290 410.87 441.74 1.2847 0.0010201 405.94 456.94 1.2705120 0.0010496 496.85 517.84 1.5105 0.0010445 493.66 525.00 1.5020 0.0010349 487.69 539.43 1.4859140 0.0010679 580.71 602.07 1.7194 0.0010623 576.90 608.76 1.7098 0.0010517 569.77 622.36 1.6916160 0.0010886 665.28 687.05 1.9203 0.0010823 660.74 693.21 1.9094 0.0010704 652.33 705.85 1.8889180 0.0011122 750.78 773.02 2.1143 0.0011049 745.40 778.55 2.1020 0.0010914 735.49 790.06 2.0790200 0.0011390 837.49 860.27 2.3027 0.0011304 831.11 865.02 2.2888 0.0011149 819.45 875.19 2.2628220 0.0011697 925.77 949.16 2.4867 0.0011595 918.15 952.93 2.4707 0.0011412 904.39 961.45 2.4414240 0.0012053 1016.1 1040.2 2.6676 0.0011927 1006.9 1042.7 2.6491 0.0011708 990.55 1049.1 2.6156260 0.0012472 1109.0 1134.0 2.8469 0.0012314 1097.8 1134.7 2.8250 0.0012044 1078.2 1138.4 2.7864280 0.0012978 1205.6 1231.5 3.0265 0.0012770 1191.5 1229.8 3.0001 0.0012430 1167.7 1229.9 2.9547300 0.0013611 1307.2 1334.4 3.2091 0.0013322 1288.9 1328.9 3.1761 0.0012879 1259.6 1324.0 3.1218320 0.0014450 1416.6 1445.5 3.3996 0.0014014 1391.7 1433.7 3.3558 0.0013409 1354.3 1421.4 3.2888340 0.0015693 1540.2 1571.6 3.6086 0.0014932 1502.4 1547.1 3.5438 0.0014049 1452.9 1523.1 3.4575360 0.0018248 1703.6 1740.1 3.8787 0.0016276 1626.8 1675.6 3.7499 0.0014848 1556.5 1630.7 3.6301380 0.0018729 1782.0 1838.2 4.0026 0.0015884 1667.1 1746.5 3.8102

924 | Thermodynamics

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Appendix 1 | 925

TABLE A–8Saturated ice–water vapor

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy,m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg · K

Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat.Temp., press., ice, vapor, ice, Subl., vapor, ice, Subl., vapor, ice, Subl., vapor,T °C Psat kPa vi vg ui uig ug hi hig hg si sig sg

0.01 0.61169 0.001091 205.99 �333.40 2707.9 2374.5 �333.40 2833.9 2500.5 �1.2202 10.374 9.1540 0.61115 0.001091 206.17 �333.43 2707.9 2374.5 �333.43 2833.9 2500.5 �1.2204 10.375 9.154

�2 0.51772 0.001091 241.62 �337.63 2709.4 2371.8 �337.63 2834.5 2496.8 �1.2358 10.453 9.218�4 0.43748 0.001090 283.84 �341.80 2710.8 2369.0 �341.80 2835.0 2493.2 �1.2513 10.533 9.282�6 0.36873 0.001090 334.27 �345.94 2712.2 2366.2 �345.93 2835.4 2489.5 �1.2667 10.613 9.347�8 0.30998 0.001090 394.66 �350.04 2713.5 2363.5 �350.04 2835.8 2485.8 �1.2821 10.695 9.413

�10 0.25990 0.001089 467.17 �354.12 2714.8 2360.7 �354.12 2836.2 2482.1 �1.2976 10.778 9.480�12 0.21732 0.001089 554.47 �358.17 2716.1 2357.9 �358.17 2836.6 2478.4 �1.3130 10.862 9.549�14 0.18121 0.001088 659.88 �362.18 2717.3 2355.2 �362.18 2836.9 2474.7 �1.3284 10.947 9.618�16 0.15068 0.001088 787.51 �366.17 2718.6 2352.4 �366.17 2837.2 2471.0 �1.3439 11.033 9.689�18 0.12492 0.001088 942.51 �370.13 2719.7 2349.6 �370.13 2837.5 2467.3 �1.3593 11.121 9.761�20 0.10326 0.001087 1131.3 �374.06 2720.9 2346.8 �374.06 2837.7 2463.6 �1.3748 11.209 9.835�22 0.08510 0.001087 1362.0 �377.95 2722.0 2344.1 �377.95 2837.9 2459.9 �1.3903 11.300 9.909�24 0.06991 0.001087 1644.7 �381.82 2723.1 2341.3 �381.82 2838.1 2456.2 �1.4057 11.391 9.985�26 0.05725 0.001087 1992.2 �385.66 2724.2 2338.5 �385.66 2838.2 2452.5 �1.4212 11.484 10.063�28 0.04673 0.001086 2421.0 �389.47 2725.2 2335.7 �389.47 2838.3 2448.8 �1.4367 11.578 10.141�30 0.03802 0.001086 2951.7 �393.25 2726.2 2332.9 �393.25 2838.4 2445.1 �1.4521 11.673 10.221�32 0.03082 0.001086 3610.9 �397.00 2727.2 2330.2 �397.00 2838.4 2441.4 �1.4676 11.770 10.303�34 0.02490 0.001085 4432.4 �400.72 2728.1 2327.4 �400.72 2838.5 2437.7 �1.4831 11.869 10.386�36 0.02004 0.001085 5460.1 �404.40 2729.0 2324.6 �404.40 2838.4 2434.0 �1.4986 11.969 10.470�38 0.01608 0.001085 6750.5 �408.07 2729.9 2321.8 �408.07 2838.4 2430.3 �1.5141 12.071 10.557�40 0.01285 0.001084 8376.7 �411.70 2730.7 2319.0 �411.70 2838.3 2426.6 �1.5296 12.174 10.644

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926 | Thermodynamics

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

1200

1100

1000

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

010

98

7 6

54

Ent

ropy

, kJ/

kg ·

K3

21

109

87

65

43

21

900

Temperature, °C

2800

2800

hh =

265

0 kJ

/kg

= 2

650

kJ/k

g26

5026

50

2550

2550

2900

2900

3000

3000

3100

3100

3200

3200

3300

3300

3400

3400

3500

3500

3600

3600

3700

3700

3800

3800

3900

3900

4000

4000

4100

4100

4200

4200

4300

4300

4400

4400

4500

4500

4600

4600

4700

4700

4800

4800

4900

4900

5000

5000

h =

500

0 kJ

/kg

h =

500

0 kJ

/kg

P = 30000 bar

P = 30000 bar

Density = kg/m

Density = kg/m33

5500 5500

50005000

300 kg/m300 kg/m33

100 kg/m100 kg/m33

30 kg/m30 kg/m33

10 kg/m10 kg/m33

3 kg/m 3 kg/m33

1 kg/m 1 kg/m33

0.3 kg/m0.3 kg/m33

0.1 kg/m0.1 kg/m33

0.03 kg/m0.03 kg/m33 Density = 0.01 kg/m

Density = 0.01 kg/m33

2000020000 15000

15000 1000010000 80008000

60006000

50005000

15001500 10

0010

00 800

800 60

060

0 500

500 400

400 350

350 300

300 250

250 20

020

0 150

150 10

010

0 80806060

4040

80%

80%

70%

70%

60%60%

50%50%40% 40%

30%30%

20%

20%

30302020

15151010

88664433

221.5 1.51.0 1.0

0.8 0.80.6 0.60.4 0.40.3 0.30.2 0.20.150.150.1 0.1

0.080.08 0.060.060.0

40.0

4 0.030.03 0.020.02 0.0150.0150.0080.008

0.006

0.006 0.0

040.0

04 0.003

0.003 0.002

0.002

20002000

30003000

40004000

000066

000022

hh == 440000 kkJJ//kkgg

000088

11000000

11220000

11440000

11660000

11880000

22000000

22220000

22440000

hh==

22660000

kkJJ//kk

gg QQuuaa

lliittyy

==9900

%%

Qua

lity

= 10

Qua

lity

= 10

%%

Satu

rate

d liq

uid

Satu

rate

d liq

uid

44550000

44000000

33880000

33660000

33440000

SSaattuu

rraatteedd

vvaappoo

rr

33220000

33220000

22660000

22440000

22000000

11880000

11660000

11440000

11220000

11000000

hh==

22220000

kkJJ//kk

gg

33000000

hh==

44220000

kkJJ//kk

gg

2800

h =

260

0 kJ

/kg

2650

2550

2900

3000

3100

3200

3300

3400

3500

3600

3700

3800

3900

4000

4100

4200

4300

4400

4500

4600

4700

4800

4900

5000

h =

500

0 kJ

/kg

P = 30000 bar

Density = kg/m3

5500

5000

300 kg/m3

100 kg/m3

30 kg/m3

10 kg/m3

3 kg/m3

1 kg/m3

0.3 kg/m3

0.1 kg/m3

0.03 kg/m3 Density = 0.01 kg/m3

20000 15000 10000 80006000

5000

1500 1000 80

0 600 500 400 350 300 250 20

0 150 10

0 8060

40

80%

70%

60%

50%40%

30%

20%

3020

1510

8643

21.51.0

0.80.60.40.30.20.150.1

0.08 0.060.0

4 0.03 0.02 0.0150.008

0.006 0.0

04 0.003 0.002

2000

3000

4000

006

002

h = 400 kJ/kg

008

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200

2400

h=

2600

kJ/k

g Qua

lity

=90

%

Qua

lity

= 10

%

Satu

rate

d liq

uid

4500

4000

3800

3600

3400

Satu

rated

vapo

r

3200

2800

2600

2400

2000

1800

1600

1400

1200

1000

h=

2200

kJ/k

g

3000

h=

4200

kJ/k

g

FIGU

RE A

–9T-

sdi

agra

m f

or w

ater

.

Cop

yrig

ht ©

1984

. Fro

m N

BS/

NR

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ter

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hn S

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Appendix 1 | 927

Ent

halp

y, k

J/kg

4000

3000

2000

1000

5000

4000

3000

2000

10002 3 4 5 6

Entropy, kJ/kg · K

7 8 9 10

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

P =

3000

0 ba

r

P =

3000

0 ba

r

2500

025

000

TT = 300

= 300°°CC

400400°°CC

500500°°CC

600600°°CC

700700°°CC

800800°°CC

900900°°CC

10001000°°CC

11001100°°CC T = 1100

T = 1100°°CC

2000

020

000

1500

015

000

1000

010

000

8000

8000

6000

6000

5000

5000

4000

4000

3000

3000

2000

2000

1500

1500

1000

1000

800

800

600

600

400

400

300

300

200

200

150

150

100

100

8080 60605050

3030 2020 1515 101088 66

5533 22 1.5

1.5

1.0

1.0

0.8

0.8

98%98%96%96%

94%94%92%92%

88%88%86%86%84%84%82%82%80%80%78%78%76%76%

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.15

0.15

0.1

0.1

0.08

0.08

0.06

0.06

0.04

0.04

0.05

0.05

0.03

0.03

0.02

0.02 0.0

150.0

150.0

10.0

1

P = 0.008 bar

P = 0.008 bar

44

4040

500

500

DDeenn

ssiittyy

==00..

0011kkgg

//mm33

00..11

kkgg//mm

33

11kkgg

//mm331100

kkgg//mm

33110000

kkgg//mm

33DDeenn

ssiittyy

==1100

0000kkgg

//mm33

QQuuaalliittyy == 9900%%

74%74%72%

72%70%70%68%

68%66%66%64%

64%62%62%60%

60%58%58%56%

56%54%54%52%

52%50%50%48%

48%46%46%44%

44%42%42%40%

40%

P =

3000

0 ba

r

2500

T = 300°C

400°C

500°C

600°C

700°C

800°C900°C

1000°C

1100°C T = 1100°C

2000

1500

1000

080

0060

0050

0040

0030

0020

0015

0010

0080

060

040

030

020

015

010

080 60

5030 20 15 10

8 6

53 2 1.5

1.0

0.8

98%96%

94%92%

88%86%84%82%80%78%76%

0.6

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.05

0.03

0.02 0.0

150.0

1

P = 0.008 bar

4

40

500

Den

sity

=0.

01kg

/m3

0.1

kg/m

3

1kg

/m310

kg/m

3100

kg/m

3Den

sity

=10

00kg

/m3

Quality = 90%

74%72%70%68%66%64%62%60%58%56%54%52%50%48%46%44%42%40%

5000

FIGURE A-10Mollier diagram for water.

Copyright © 1984. From NBS/NRC Steam Tables/1 by Lester Haar, John S. Gallagher, and George S. Kell. Reproduced by permission of Routledge/Taylor &Francis Books, Inc.

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928 | Thermodynamics

TABLE A–11Saturated refrigerant-134a—Temperature table

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy,m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg · K

Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat.Temp., press., liquid, vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor,T °C Psat kPa vf vg uf ufg ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg

�40 51.25 0.0007054 0.36081 �0.036 207.40 207.37 0.000 225.86 225.86 0.00000 0.96866 0.96866�38 56.86 0.0007083 0.32732 2.475 206.04 208.51 2.515 224.61 227.12 0.01072 0.95511 0.96584�36 62.95 0.0007112 0.29751 4.992 204.67 209.66 5.037 223.35 228.39 0.02138 0.94176 0.96315�34 69.56 0.0007142 0.27090 7.517 203.29 210.81 7.566 222.09 229.65 0.03199 0.92859 0.96058�32 76.71 0.0007172 0.24711 10.05 201.91 211.96 10.10 220.81 230.91 0.04253 0.91560 0.95813

�30 84.43 0.0007203 0.22580 12.59 200.52 213.11 12.65 219.52 232.17 0.05301 0.90278 0.95579�28 92.76 0.0007234 0.20666 15.13 199.12 214.25 15.20 218.22 233.43 0.06344 0.89012 0.95356�26 101.73 0.0007265 0.18946 17.69 197.72 215.40 17.76 216.92 234.68 0.07382 0.87762 0.95144�24 111.37 0.0007297 0.17395 20.25 196.30 216.55 20.33 215.59 235.92 0.08414 0.86527 0.94941�22 121.72 0.0007329 0.15995 22.82 194.88 217.70 22.91 214.26 s237.17 0.09441 0.85307 0.94748

�20 132.82 0.0007362 0.14729 25.39 193.45 218.84 25.49 212.91 238.41 0.10463 0.84101 0.94564�18 144.69 0.0007396 0.13583 27.98 192.01 219.98 28.09 211.55 239.64 0.11481 0.82908 0.94389�16 157.38 0.0007430 0.12542 30.57 190.56 221.13 30.69 210.18 240.87 0.12493 0.81729 0.94222�14 170.93 0.0007464 0.11597 33.17 189.09 222.27 33.30 208.79 242.09 0.13501 0.80561 0.94063�12 185.37 0.0007499 0.10736 35.78 187.62 223.40 35.92 207.38 243.30 0.14504 0.79406 0.93911

�10 200.74 0.0007535 0.099516 38.40 186.14 224.54 38.55 205.96 244.51 0.15504 0.78263 0.93766�8 217.08 0.0007571 0.092352 41.03 184.64 225.67 41.19 204.52 245.72 0.16498 0.77130 0.93629�6 234.44 0.0007608 0.085802 43.66 183.13 226.80 43.84 203.07 246.91 0.17489 0.76008 0.93497�4 252.85 0.0007646 0.079804 46.31 181.61 227.92 46.50 201.60 248.10 0.18476 0.74896 0.93372�2 272.36 0.0007684 0.074304 48.96 180.08 229.04 49.17 200.11 249.28 0.19459 0.73794 0.93253

0 293.01 0.0007723 0.069255 51.63 178.53 230.16 51.86 198.60 250.45 0.20439 0.72701 0.931392 314.84 0.0007763 0.064612 54.30 176.97 231.27 54.55 197.07 251.61 0.21415 0.71616 0.930314 337.90 0.0007804 0.060338 56.99 175.39 232.38 57.25 195.51 252.77 0.22387 0.70540 0.929276 362.23 0.0007845 0.056398 59.68 173.80 233.48 59.97 193.94 253.91 0.23356 0.69471 0.928288 387.88 0.0007887 0.052762 62.39 172.19 234.58 62.69 192.35 255.04 0.24323 0.68410 0.92733

10 414.89 0.0007930 0.049403 65.10 170.56 235.67 65.43 190.73 256.16 0.25286 0.67356 0.9264112 443.31 0.0007975 0.046295 67.83 168.92 236.75 68.18 189.09 257.27 0.26246 0.66308 0.9255414 473.19 0.0008020 0.043417 70.57 167.26 237.83 70.95 187.42 258.37 0.27204 0.65266 0.9247016 504.58 0.0008066 0.040748 73.32 165.58 238.90 73.73 185.73 259.46 0.28159 0.64230 0.9238918 537.52 0.0008113 0.038271 76.08 163.88 239.96 76.52 184.01 260.53 0.29112 0.63198 0.92310

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TABLE A–11Saturated refrigerant-134a—Temperature table (Continued)

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy,m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg · K

Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat.Temp., press., liquid, vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor,T °C Psat kPa vf vg uf ufg ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg

20 572.07 0.0008161 0.035969 78.86 162.16 241.02 79.32 182.27 261.59 0.30063 0.62172 0.9223422 608.27 0.0008210 0.033828 81.64 160.42 242.06 82.14 180.49 262.64 0.31011 0.61149 0.9216024 646.18 0.0008261 0.031834 84.44 158.65 243.10 84.98 178.69 263.67 0.31958 0.60130 0.9208826 685.84 0.0008313 0.029976 87.26 156.87 244.12 87.83 176.85 264.68 0.32903 0.59115 0.9201828 727.31 0.0008366 0.028242 90.09 155.05 245.14 90.69 174.99 265.68 0.33846 0.58102 0.91948

30 770.64 0.0008421 0.026622 92.93 153.22 246.14 93.58 173.08 266.66 0.34789 0.57091 0.9187932 815.89 0.0008478 0.025108 95.79 151.35 247.14 96.48 171.14 267.62 0.35730 0.56082 0.9181134 863.11 0.0008536 0.023691 98.66 149.46 248.12 99.40 169.17 268.57 0.36670 0.55074 0.9174336 912.35 0.0008595 0.022364 101.55 147.54 249.08 102.33 167.16 269.49 0.37609 0.54066 0.9167538 963.68 0.0008657 0.021119 104.45 145.58 250.04 105.29 165.10 270.39 0.38548 0.53058 0.91606

40 1017.1 0.0008720 0.019952 107.38 143.60 250.97 108.26 163.00 271.27 0.39486 0.52049 0.9153642 1072.8 0.0008786 0.018855 110.32 141.58 251.89 111.26 160.86 272.12 0.40425 0.51039 0.9146444 1130.7 0.0008854 0.017824 113.28 139.52 252.80 114.28 158.67 272.95 0.41363 0.50027 0.9139146 1191.0 0.0008924 0.016853 116.26 137.42 253.68 117.32 156.43 273.75 0.42302 0.49012 0.9131548 1253.6 0.0008996 0.015939 119.26 135.29 254.55 120.39 154.14 274.53 0.43242 0.47993 0.91236

52 1386.2 0.0009150 0.014265 125.33 130.88 256.21 126.59 149.39 275.98 0.45126 0.45941 0.9106756 1529.1 0.0009317 0.012771 131.49 126.28 257.77 132.91 144.38 277.30 0.47018 0.43863 0.9088060 1682.8 0.0009498 0.011434 137.76 121.46 259.22 139.36 139.10 278.46 0.48920 0.41749 0.9066965 1891.0 0.0009750 0.009950 145.77 115.05 260.82 147.62 132.02 279.64 0.51320 0.39039 0.9035970 2118.2 0.0010037 0.008642 154.01 108.14 262.15 156.13 124.32 280.46 0.53755 0.36227 0.8998275 2365.8 0.0010372 0.007480 162.53 100.60 263.13 164.98 115.85 280.82 0.56241 0.33272 0.89512

80 2635.3 0.0010772 0.006436 171.40 92.23 263.63 174.24 106.35 280.59 0.58800 0.30111 0.8891285 2928.2 0.0011270 0.005486 180.77 82.67 263.44 184.07 95.44 279.51 0.61473 0.26644 0.8811790 3246.9 0.0011932 0.004599 190.89 71.29 262.18 194.76 82.35 277.11 0.64336 0.22674 0.8701095 3594.1 0.0012933 0.003726 202.40 56.47 258.87 207.05 65.21 272.26 0.67578 0.17711 0.85289

100 3975.1 0.0015269 0.002630 218.72 29.19 247.91 224.79 33.58 258.37 0.72217 0.08999 0.81215

Source: Tables A–11 through A–13 are generated using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado.The routine used in calculations is the R134a, which is based on the fundamental equation of state developed by R. Tillner-Roth and H.D. Baehr, “AnInternational Standard Formulation for the Thermodynamic Properties of 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) for temperatures from 170 K to 455 Kand Pressures up to 70 MPa,” J. Phys. Chem, Ref. Data, Vol. 23, No. 5, 1994. The enthalpy and entropy values of saturated liquid are set to zero at�40°C (and �40°F).

Appendix 1 | 929

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TABLE A–12Saturated refrigerant-134a—Pressure table

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy,m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg · K

Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat.Press., temp., liquid, vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor,P kPa Tsat °C vf vg uf ufg ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg

60 �36.95 0.0007098 0.31121 3.798 205.32 209.12 3.841 223.95 227.79 0.01634 0.94807 0.9644170 �33.87 0.0007144 0.26929 7.680 203.20 210.88 7.730 222.00 229.73 0.03267 0.92775 0.9604280 �31.13 0.0007185 0.23753 11.15 201.30 212.46 11.21 220.25 231.46 0.04711 0.90999 0.9571090 �28.65 0.0007223 0.21263 14.31 199.57 213.88 14.37 218.65 233.02 0.06008 0.89419 0.95427

100 �26.37 0.0007259 0.19254 17.21 197.98 215.19 17.28 217.16 234.44 0.07188 0.87995 0.95183

120 �22.32 0.0007324 0.16212 22.40 195.11 217.51 22.49 214.48 236.97 0.09275 0.85503 0.94779140 �18.77 0.0007383 0.14014 26.98 192.57 219.54 27.08 212.08 239.16 0.11087 0.83368 0.94456160 �15.60 0.0007437 0.12348 31.09 190.27 221.35 31.21 209.90 241.11 0.12693 0.81496 0.94190180 �12.73 0.0007487 0.11041 34.83 188.16 222.99 34.97 207.90 242.86 0.14139 0.79826 0.93965200 �10.09 0.0007533 0.099867 38.28 186.21 224.48 38.43 206.03 244.46 0.15457 0.78316 0.93773

240 �5.38 0.0007620 0.083897 44.48 182.67 227.14 44.66 202.62 247.28 0.17794 0.75664 0.93458280 �1.25 0.0007699 0.072352 49.97 179.50 229.46 50.18 199.54 249.72 0.19829 0.73381 0.93210320 2.46 0.0007772 0.063604 54.92 176.61 231.52 55.16 196.71 251.88 0.21637 0.71369 0.93006360 5.82 0.0007841 0.056738 59.44 173.94 233.38 59.72 194.08 253.81 0.23270 0.69566 0.92836400 8.91 0.0007907 0.051201 63.62 171.45 235.07 63.94 191.62 255.55 0.24761 0.67929 0.92691

450 12.46 0.0007985 0.045619 68.45 168.54 237.00 68.81 188.71 257.53 0.26465 0.66069 0.92535500 15.71 0.0008059 0.041118 72.93 165.82 238.75 73.33 185.98 259.30 0.28023 0.64377 0.92400550 18.73 0.0008130 0.037408 77.10 163.25 240.35 77.54 183.38 260.92 0.29461 0.62821 0.92282600 21.55 0.0008199 0.034295 81.02 160.81 241.83 81.51 180.90 262.40 0.30799 0.61378 0.92177650 24.20 0.0008266 0.031646 84.72 158.48 243.20 85.26 178.51 263.77 0.32051 0.60030 0.92081

700 26.69 0.0008331 0.029361 88.24 156.24 244.48 88.82 176.21 265.03 0.33230 0.58763 0.91994750 29.06 0.0008395 0.027371 91.59 154.08 245.67 92.22 173.98 266.20 0.34345 0.57567 0.91912800 31.31 0.0008458 0.025621 94.79 152.00 246.79 95.47 171.82 267.29 0.35404 0.56431 0.91835850 33.45 0.0008520 0.024069 97.87 149.98 247.85 98.60 169.71 268.31 0.36413 0.55349 0.91762

900 35.51 0.0008580 0.022683 100.83 148.01 248.85 101.61 167.66 269.26 0.37377 0.54315 0.91692950 37.48 0.0008641 0.021438 103.69 146.10 249.79 104.51 165.64 270.15 0.38301 0.53323 0.91624

1000 39.37 0.0008700 0.020313 106.45 144.23 250.68 107.32 163.67 270.99 0.39189 0.52368 0.915581200 46.29 0.0008934 0.016715 116.70 137.11 253.81 117.77 156.10 273.87 0.42441 0.48863 0.913031400 52.40 0.0009166 0.014107 125.94 130.43 256.37 127.22 148.90 276.12 0.45315 0.45734 0.91050

1600 57.88 0.0009400 0.012123 134.43 124.04 258.47 135.93 141.93 277.86 0.47911 0.42873 0.907841800 62.87 0.0009639 0.010559 142.33 117.83 260.17 144.07 135.11 279.17 0.50294 0.40204 0.904982000 67.45 0.0009886 0.009288 149.78 111.73 261.51 151.76 128.33 280.09 0.52509 0.37675 0.901842500 77.54 0.0010566 0.006936 166.99 96.47 263.45 169.63 111.16 280.79 0.57531 0.31695 0.892263000 86.16 0.0011406 0.005275 183.04 80.22 263.26 186.46 92.63 279.09 0.62118 0.25776 0.87894

930 | Thermodynamics

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TABLE A–13Superheated refrigerant-134a

T v u h s v u h s v u h s°C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg � K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg � K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg � K

P � 0.06 MPa (Tsat � �36.95°C) P � 0.10 MPa (Tsat � �26.37°C) P � 0.14 MPa (Tsat � �18.77°C)

Sat. 0.31121 209.12 227.79 0.9644 0.19254 215.19 234.44 0.9518 0.14014 219.54 239.16 0.9446�20 0.33608 220.60 240.76 1.0174 0.19841 219.66 239.50 0.9721�10 0.35048 227.55 248.58 1.0477 0.20743 226.75 247.49 1.0030 0.14605 225.91 246.36 0.9724

0 0.36476 234.66 256.54 1.0774 0.21630 233.95 255.58 1.0332 0.15263 233.23 254.60 1.003110 0.37893 241.92 264.66 1.1066 0.22506 241.30 263.81 1.0628 0.15908 240.66 262.93 1.033120 0.39302 249.35 272.94 1.1353 0.23373 248.79 272.17 1.0918 0.16544 248.22 271.38 1.062430 0.40705 256.95 281.37 1.1636 0.24233 256.44 280.68 1.1203 0.17172 255.93 279.97 1.091240 0.42102 264.71 289.97 1.1915 0.25088 264.25 289.34 1.1484 0.17794 263.79 288.70 1.119550 0.43495 272.64 298.74 1.2191 0.25937 272.22 298.16 1.1762 0.18412 271.79 297.57 1.147460 0.44883 280.73 307.66 1.2463 0.26783 280.35 307.13 1.2035 0.19025 279.96 306.59 1.174970 0.46269 288.99 316.75 1.2732 0.27626 288.64 316.26 1.2305 0.19635 288.28 315.77 1.202080 0.47651 297.41 326.00 1.2997 0.28465 297.08 325.55 1.2572 0.20242 296.75 325.09 1.228890 0.49032 306.00 335.42 1.3260 0.29303 305.69 334.99 1.2836 0.20847 305.38 334.57 1.2553

100 0.50410 314.74 344.99 1.3520 0.30138 314.46 344.60 1.3096 0.21449 314.17 344.20 1.2814

P � 0.18 MPa (Tsat � �12.73°C) P � 0.20 MPa (Tsat � �10.09°C) P � 0.24 MPa (Tsat � �5.38°C)

Sat. 0.11041 222.99 242.86 0.9397 0.09987 224.48 244.46 0.9377 0.08390 227.14 247.28 0.9346�10 0.11189 225.02 245.16 0.9484 0.09991 224.55 244.54 0.9380

0 0.11722 232.48 253.58 0.9798 0.10481 232.09 253.05 0.9698 0.08617 231.29 251.97 0.951910 0.12240 240.00 262.04 1.0102 0.10955 239.67 261.58 1.0004 0.09026 238.98 260.65 0.983120 0.12748 247.64 270.59 1.0399 0.11418 247.35 270.18 1.0303 0.09423 246.74 269.36 1.013430 0.13248 255.41 279.25 1.0690 0.11874 255.14 278.89 1.0595 0.09812 254.61 278.16 1.042940 0.13741 263.31 288.05 1.0975 0.12322 263.08 287.72 1.0882 0.10193 262.59 287.06 1.071850 0.14230 271.36 296.98 1.1256 0.12766 271.15 296.68 1.1163 0.10570 270.71 296.08 1.100160 0.14715 279.56 306.05 1.1532 0.13206 279.37 305.78 1.1441 0.10942 278.97 305.23 1.128070 0.15196 287.91 315.27 1.1805 0.13641 287.73 315.01 1.1714 0.11310 287.36 314.51 1.155480 0.15673 296.42 324.63 1.2074 0.14074 296.25 324.40 1.1983 0.11675 295.91 323.93 1.182590 0.16149 305.07 334.14 1.2339 0.14504 304.92 333.93 1.2249 0.12038 304.60 333.49 1.2092

100 0.16622 313.88 343.80 1.2602 0.14933 313.74 343.60 1.2512 0.12398 313.44 343.20 1.2356

P � 0.28 MPa (Tsat � �1.25°C) P � 0.32 MPa (Tsat � 2.46°C) P � 0.40 MPa (Tsat � 8.91°C)

Sat. 0.07235 229.46 249.72 0.9321 0.06360 231.52 251.88 0.9301 0.051201 235.07 255.55 0.92690 0.07282 230.44 250.83 0.9362

10 0.07646 238.27 259.68 0.9680 0.06609 237.54 258.69 0.9544 0.051506 235.97 256.58 0.930520 0.07997 246.13 268.52 0.9987 0.06925 245.50 267.66 0.9856 0.054213 244.18 265.86 0.962830 0.08338 254.06 277.41 1.0285 0.07231 253.50 276.65 1.0157 0.056796 252.36 275.07 0.993740 0.08672 262.10 286.38 1.0576 0.07530 261.60 285.70 1.0451 0.059292 260.58 284.30 1.023650 0.09000 270.27 295.47 1.0862 0.07823 269.82 294.85 1.0739 0.061724 268.90 293.59 1.052860 0.09324 278.56 304.67 1.1142 0.08111 278.15 304.11 1.1021 0.064104 277.32 302.96 1.081470 0.09644 286.99 314.00 1.1418 0.08395 286.62 313.48 1.1298 0.066443 285.86 312.44 1.109480 0.09961 295.57 323.46 1.1690 0.08675 295.22 322.98 1.1571 0.068747 294.53 322.02 1.136990 0.10275 304.29 333.06 1.1958 0.08953 303.97 332.62 1.1840 0.071023 303.32 331.73 1.1640

100 0.10587 313.15 342.80 1.2222 0.09229 312.86 342.39 1.2105 0.073274 312.26 341.57 1.1907110 0.10897 322.16 352.68 1.2483 0.09503 321.89 352.30 1.2367 0.075504 321.33 351.53 1.2171120 0.11205 331.32 362.70 1.2742 0.09775 331.07 362.35 1.2626 0.077717 330.55 361.63 1.2431130 0.11512 340.63 372.87 1.2997 0.10045 340.39 372.54 1.2882 0.079913 339.90 371.87 1.2688140 0.11818 350.09 383.18 1.3250 0.10314 349.86 382.87 1.3135 0.082096 349.41 382.24 1.2942

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TABLE A–13Superheated refrigerant-134a (Continued)

T v u h s v u h s v u h s°C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg � K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg � K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg � K

P � 0.50 MPa (Tsat � 15.71°C) P � 0.60 MPa (Tsat � 21.55°C) P � 0.70 MPa (Tsat � 26.69°C)

Sat. 0.041118 238.75 259.30 0.9240 0.034295 241.83 262.40 0.9218 0.029361 244.48 265.03 0.919920 0.042115 242.40 263.46 0.938330 0.044338 250.84 273.01 0.9703 0.035984 249.22 270.81 0.9499 0.029966 247.48 268.45 0.931340 0.046456 259.26 282.48 1.0011 0.037865 257.86 280.58 0.9816 0.031696 256.39 278.57 0.964150 0.048499 267.72 291.96 1.0309 0.039659 266.48 290.28 1.0121 0.033322 265.20 288.53 0.995460 0.050485 276.25 301.50 1.0599 0.041389 275.15 299.98 1.0417 0.034875 274.01 298.42 1.025670 0.052427 284.89 311.10 1.0883 0.043069 283.89 309.73 1.0705 0.036373 282.87 308.33 1.054980 0.054331 293.64 320.80 1.1162 0.044710 292.73 319.55 1.0987 0.037829 291.80 318.28 1.083590 0.056205 302.51 330.61 1.1436 0.046318 301.67 329.46 1.1264 0.039250 300.82 328.29 1.1114

100 0.058053 311.50 340.53 1.1705 0.047900 310.73 339.47 1.1536 0.040642 309.95 338.40 1.1389110 0.059880 320.63 350.57 1.1971 0.049458 319.91 349.59 1.1803 0.042010 319.19 348.60 1.1658120 0.061687 329.89 360.73 1.2233 0.050997 329.23 359.82 1.2067 0.043358 328.55 358.90 1.1924130 0.063479 339.29 371.03 1.2491 0.052519 338.67 370.18 1.2327 0.044688 338.04 369.32 1.2186140 0.065256 348.83 381.46 1.2747 0.054027 348.25 380.66 1.2584 0.046004 347.66 379.86 1.2444150 0.067021 358.51 392.02 1.2999 0.055522 357.96 391.27 1.2838 0.047306 357.41 390.52 1.2699160 0.068775 368.33 402.72 1.3249 0.057006 367.81 402.01 1.3088 0.048597 367.29 401.31 1.2951

P � 0.80 MPa (Tsat � 31.31°C) P � 0.90 MPa (Tsat � 35.51°C) P � 1.00 MPa (Tsat � 39.37°C)

Sat. 0.025621 246.79 267.29 0.9183 0.022683 248.85 269.26 0.9169 0.020313 250.68 270.99 0.915640 0.027035 254.82 276.45 0.9480 0.023375 253.13 274.17 0.9327 0.020406 251.30 271.71 0.917950 0.028547 263.86 286.69 0.9802 0.024809 262.44 284.77 0.9660 0.021796 260.94 282.74 0.952560 0.029973 272.83 296.81 1.0110 0.026146 271.60 295.13 0.9976 0.023068 270.32 293.38 0.985070 0.031340 281.81 306.88 1.0408 0.027413 280.72 305.39 1.0280 0.024261 279.59 303.85 1.016080 0.032659 290.84 316.97 1.0698 0.028630 289.86 315.63 1.0574 0.025398 288.86 314.25 1.045890 0.033941 299.95 327.10 1.0981 0.029806 299.06 325.89 1.0860 0.026492 298.15 324.64 1.0748

100 0.035193 309.15 337.30 1.1258 0.030951 308.34 336.19 1.1140 0.027552 307.51 335.06 1.1031110 0.036420 318.45 347.59 1.1530 0.032068 317.70 346.56 1.1414 0.028584 316.94 345.53 1.1308120 0.037625 327.87 357.97 1.1798 0.033164 327.18 357.02 1.1684 0.029592 326.47 356.06 1.1580130 0.038813 337.40 368.45 1.2061 0.034241 336.76 367.58 1.1949 0.030581 336.11 366.69 1.1846140 0.039985 347.06 379.05 1.2321 0.035302 346.46 378.23 1.2210 0.031554 345.85 377.40 1.2109150 0.041143 356.85 389.76 1.2577 0.036349 356.28 389.00 1.2467 0.032512 355.71 388.22 1.2368160 0.042290 366.76 400.59 1.2830 0.037384 366.23 399.88 1.2721 0.033457 365.70 399.15 1.2623170 0.043427 376.81 411.55 1.3080 0.038408 376.31 410.88 1.2972 0.034392 375.81 410.20 1.2875180 0.044554 386.99 422.64 1.3327 0.039423 386.52 422.00 1.3221 0.035317 386.04 421.36 1.3124

P � 1.20 MPa (Tsat � 46.29°C) P � 1.40 MPa (Tsat � 52.40°C) P � 1.60 MPa (Tsat � 57.88°C)

Sat. 0.016715 253.81 273.87 0.9130 0.014107 256.37 276.12 0.9105 0.012123 258.47 277.86 0.907850 0.017201 257.63 278.27 0.926760 0.018404 267.56 289.64 0.9614 0.015005 264.46 285.47 0.9389 0.012372 260.89 280.69 0.916370 0.019502 277.21 300.61 0.9938 0.016060 274.62 297.10 0.9733 0.013430 271.76 293.25 0.953580 0.020529 286.75 311.39 1.0248 0.017023 284.51 308.34 1.0056 0.014362 282.09 305.07 0.987590 0.021506 296.26 322.07 1.0546 0.017923 294.28 319.37 1.0364 0.015215 292.17 316.52 1.0194

100 0.022442 305.80 332.73 1.0836 0.018778 304.01 330.30 1.0661 0.016014 302.14 327.76 1.0500110 0.023348 315.38 343.40 1.1118 0.019597 313.76 341.19 1.0949 0.016773 312.07 338.91 1.0795120 0.024228 325.03 354.11 1.1394 0.020388 323.55 352.09 1.1230 0.017500 322.02 350.02 1.1081130 0.025086 334.77 364.88 1.1664 0.021155 333.41 363.02 1.1504 0.018201 332.00 361.12 1.1360140 0.025927 344.61 375.72 1.1930 0.021904 343.34 374.01 1.1773 0.018882 342.05 372.26 1.1632150 0.026753 354.56 386.66 1.2192 0.022636 353.37 385.07 1.2038 0.019545 352.17 383.44 1.1900160 0.027566 364.61 397.69 1.2449 0.023355 363.51 396.20 1.2298 0.020194 362.38 394.69 1.2163170 0.028367 374.78 408.82 1.2703 0.024061 373.75 407.43 1.2554 0.020830 372.69 406.02 1.2421180 0.029158 385.08 420.07 1.2954 0.024757 384.10 418.76 1.2807 0.021456 383.11 417.44 1.2676

932 | Thermodynamics

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Appendix 1 | 933

20

10

4

1

0.1

0.04

0.02

0.01100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Enthalpy, kJ/kg

Pres

sure

, MPa

450 500 550 600 650 700 750

100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750

0.2

0.4

2

20

10

4

1

0.1

0.04

0.02

0.01

0.2

R-134aR-134a

T =

0T

= 0°°CC

2020

––2020

––4040

––6060

4040

6060

8080

100100

1500

1500

0.64

0.64

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2 0.3

0.3

0.4

0.4

0.6

0.6

0.7

0.7

0.8

0.8

0.9

0.9

––4040 ––2

020 00 2020 4040 6060 8080 100

100

120

120

140

140

T =

160

T =

160

°°CC

180

180 200

200

2.48

2.48

2.64

2.64

2.72

2.72ss =

2.5

6 =

2.5

622

022

240

240

260

260

280

280

300

300

satu

rate

d va

por

satu

rate

d va

por

X =

0.5

X =

0.5

0.72

0.72

0.80

0.80

0.88

0.88

satu

rate

d liq

uids

satu

rate

d liq

uids

0.96

0.96

1.04

1.04

1.12

1.12

1.20

1.20

1.28

1.28

1.36

1.36

1.44

1.44

1.52

1.52

1.60

1.60

1.68

1.68

1.76

1.76

1.84

1.84

1.92

1.92

2.00

2.00

2.08

2.08

2.24

2.24

2.32

2.32

2.40

2.40

2.48

2.48

s =

2.16

kJ/

kg

s =

2.16

kJ/

kg��KK

1450

1450

1400

1400

1350

1350

1300

1300

1250

1250

1200

kg/

m12

00 k

g/m

33

1150

1150

1100

1100

1050

1050

1000

1000 95

095

090

090

085

085

0 800

800

700700

600600500500

400400300300

160160

120120

9090

707060605050

4040

3232

2424

1616

1212

88

66

Densityh = 200 kg/mDensityh = 200 kg/m33

44

3.23.2

2.42.4

1.61.6

1.21.2

0.80.8

0.60.6

0.40.4

0.30.3

R-134a

T =

0°C

20

–20

–40

–60

40

60

80

100

1500

0.64

0.1

0.2 0.3

0.4

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

–40 –2

0 0 20 40 60 80 100

120

140

T =

160

°C

180 200

2.48

2.64

2.72s =

2.5

622

240

260

280

300

satu

rate

d va

por

X =

0.5

0.72

0.80

0.88

satu

rate

d liq

uids

0.96

1.04

1.12

1.20

1.28

1.36

1.44

1.52

1.60

1.68

1.76

1.84

1.92

2.00

2.08

2.24

2.32

2.40

2.48

s =

2.16

kJ/

kg�K

1450

1400

1350

1300

1250

1200

kg/

m3

1150

1100

1050

1000 95

090

085

0 800

700600

500

400300

160

120

90

706050

40

32

24

16

12

8

6

Density = 200 kg/m3

4

3.2

2.4

1.6

1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.3

0.4

2

FIGURE A–14P-h diagram for refrigerant-134a.

Note: The reference point used for the chart is different than that used in the R-134a tables. Therefore, problems should be solved using all property dataeither from the tables or from the chart, but not from both.

Reprinted by permission of American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

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Property Tables and Charts - [PDF Document] (26)

FIGURE A–15Nelson–Obert generalized compressibility chart.Used with permission of Dr. Edward E. Obert, University of Wisconsin.

934 | Thermodynamics

1.00

REDUCED PRESSURE, PR

Pv

—–

RT

CO

MPR

ESS

IBIL

ITY

FA

CT

OR

, Z

=

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

(a) Low pressures, 0 < PR < 1.0

00..6655

00..6600

TT

RR ==11..00

11..0055

11..1100

11..1155

11..2200

11..3300

11..4400

11..6600

22..0000

33..0000

00..9955

00..9900

00..8855

00..8800

00..7755..007700

TTRR = = 5.00 5.00

0.65

0.60

T

R =1.0

1.05

1.10

1.15

1.20

1.30

1.40

1.60

2.00

3.00

0.95

0.90

0.85

0.80

0.75.070

TR = 5.00

11..8800

11..660011..5500

11..4400

11..3300

11..220011..1100

11..0000

00..9900

00..8800

vv RR== 00..77

22..000022..220022..440022..660033..000033..550044..000055..000066..000088..0000

1.80

1.601.50

1.40

1.30

1.201.10

1.00

0.90

0.80

v R= 0.7

2.002.202.402.603.003.504.005.006.008.00

2.001.601.401.20

1.051.10

1.000.950.90

0.85

0.80

0.750.00 0.05 0.10

0.90

0.95Z

PR

00..7700

00..6655

00..6600

3030

2020

1515

1212 1010

vvrr

0.70

0.65

0.60

30

20

15

12 10

vR

NELSON — OBERTGENERALIZED

COMPRESSIBILITY CHARTS

CHARTNo.1

PSEUDO REDUCED VOLUME,

P—–Pcr

REDUCED PRESSURE, PR =

TR = 2.5 Z ≈1.00

TR = 15 ≈ T

R = 3.00

REDUCED TEMPERATURE,T

—–Tcr

TR =

v––—–––RTcr / Pcr

vR =

1953

NOTE

---DEVIATION > 1.0%

NELSON — OBERTGENERALIZED

COMPRESSIBILITY CHARTS

CHARTNo.2

PSEUDO REDUCED VOLUME,

P—–Pcr

REDUCED PRESSURE, PR =

REDUCED TEMPERATURE,T

—–Tcr

TR =

v—–

RTcr / Pcr

vR =

1953TTRR = 1.00= 1.00

1.051.05

1.101.10

1.151.15

1.201.20

1.301.30

1.401.40

1.501.50

1.601.60

1.801.80

2.002.00

3.503.50

2.502.50TT

RR = 5.00= 5.00

TR = 1.00

1.05

1.10

1.15

1.20

1.30

1.40

1.50

1.60

1.80

2.00

3.50

2.50T

R = 5.00

vv RR== 00..220000..2255

00..330000..335500..440000..4455vv RR

== 00..550000..660000..770000..8800

00..9900

11..000011..22

0011..4400

11..660033..

0000

22..

0000

v R= 0.200.25

0.300.350.400.45v R

= 0.500.600.700.80

0.90

1.001.2

01.40

1.603.

00

33..

0000

5.

00

2.

00

REDUCED PRESSURE, PR

Pv

—–

RT

CO

MPR

ESS

IBIL

ITY

FA

CT

OR

, Z

=

(b) Intermediate pressures, 0 < PR < 7

0.0 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.51.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.00.20

0.30

0.40

0.50

0.60

0.70

0.80

0.90

1.00

1.10

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TABLE A–16

Properties of the atmosphere at high altitude

Speed of ThermalAltitude, Temperature, Pressure, Gravity Sound, Density, Viscosity Conductivity,

m °C kPa g, m/s2 m/s kg/m3 m, kg/m · s W/m · K

0 15.00 101.33 9.807 340.3 1.225 1.789 � 10�5 0.0253200 13.70 98.95 9.806 339.5 1.202 1.783 � 10�5 0.0252400 12.40 96.61 9.805 338.8 1.179 1.777 � 10�5 0.0252600 11.10 94.32 9.805 338.0 1.156 1.771 � 10�5 0.0251800 9.80 92.08 9.804 337.2 1.134 1.764 � 10�5 0.0250

1000 8.50 89.88 9.804 336.4 1.112 1.758 � 10�5 0.02491200 7.20 87.72 9.803 335.7 1.090 1.752 � 10�5 0.02481400 5.90 85.60 9.802 334.9 1.069 1.745 � 10�5 0.02471600 4.60 83.53 9.802 334.1 1.048 1.739 � 10�5 0.02451800 3.30 81.49 9.801 333.3 1.027 1.732 � 10�5 0.0244

2000 2.00 79.50 9.800 332.5 1.007 1.726 � 10�5 0.02432200 0.70 77.55 9.800 331.7 0.987 1.720 � 10�5 0.02422400 �0.59 75.63 9.799 331.0 0.967 1.713 � 10�5 0.02412600 �1.89 73.76 9.799 330.2 0.947 1.707 � 10�5 0.02402800 �3.19 71.92 9.798 329.4 0.928 1.700 � 10�5 0.0239

3000 �4.49 70.12 9.797 328.6 0.909 1.694 � 10�5 0.02383200 �5.79 68.36 9.797 327.8 0.891 1.687 � 10�5 0.02373400 �7.09 66.63 9.796 327.0 0.872 1.681 � 10�5 0.02363600 �8.39 64.94 9.796 326.2 0.854 1.674 � 10�5 0.02353800 �9.69 63.28 9.795 325.4 0.837 1.668 � 10�5 0.0234

4000 �10.98 61.66 9.794 324.6 0.819 1.661 � 10�5 0.02334200 �12.3 60.07 9.794 323.8 0.802 1.655 � 10�5 0.02324400 �13.6 58.52 9.793 323.0 0.785 1.648 � 10�5 0.02314600 �14.9 57.00 9.793 322.2 0.769 1.642 � 10�5 0.02304800 �16.2 55.51 9.792 321.4 0.752 1.635 � 10�5 0.0229

5000 �17.5 54.05 9.791 320.5 0.736 1.628 � 10�5 0.02285200 �18.8 52.62 9.791 319.7 0.721 1.622 � 10�5 0.02275400 �20.1 51.23 9.790 318.9 0.705 1.615 � 10�5 0.02265600 �21.4 49.86 9.789 318.1 0.690 1.608 � 10�5 0.02245800 �22.7 48.52 9.785 317.3 0.675 1.602 � 10�5 0.0223

6000 �24.0 47.22 9.788 316.5 0.660 1.595 � 10�5 0.02226200 �25.3 45.94 9.788 315.6 0.646 1.588 � 10�5 0.02216400 �26.6 44.69 9.787 314.8 0.631 1.582 � 10�5 0.02206600 �27.9 43.47 9.786 314.0 0.617 1.575 � 10�5 0.02196800 �29.2 42.27 9.785 313.1 0.604 1.568 � 10�5 0.0218

7000 �30.5 41.11 9.785 312.3 0.590 1.561 � 10�5 0.02178000 �36.9 35.65 9.782 308.1 0.526 1.527 � 10�5 0.02129000 �43.4 30.80 9.779 303.8 0.467 1.493 � 10�5 0.0206

10,000 �49.9 26.50 9.776 299.5 0.414 1.458 � 10�5 0.020112,000 �56.5 19.40 9.770 295.1 0.312 1.422 � 10�5 0.019514,000 �56.5 14.17 9.764 295.1 0.228 1.422 � 10�5 0.019516,000 �56.5 10.53 9.758 295.1 0.166 1.422 � 10�5 0.019518,000 �56.5 7.57 9.751 295.1 0.122 1.422 � 10�5 0.0195

Source: U.S. Standard Atmosphere Supplements, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1966. Based on year-round mean conditions at 45° latitude and varies withthe time of the year and the weather patterns. The conditions at sea level (z � 0) are taken to be P � 101.325 kPa, T � 15°C, r � 1.2250 kg/m3, g � 9.80665 m2/s.

Appendix 1 | 935

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TABLE A–17

Ideal-gas properties of air

T h u s° T h u s°K kJ/kg Pr kJ/kg vr kJ/kg · K K kJ/kg Pr kJ/kg vr kJ/kg · K

200 199.97 0.3363 142.56 1707.0 1.29559 580 586.04 14.38 419.55 115.7 2.37348210 209.97 0.3987 149.69 1512.0 1.34444 590 596.52 15.31 427.15 110.6 2.39140220 219.97 0.4690 156.82 1346.0 1.39105 600 607.02 16.28 434.78 105.8 2.40902230 230.02 0.5477 164.00 1205.0 1.43557 610 617.53 17.30 442.42 101.2 2.42644240 240.02 0.6355 171.13 1084.0 1.47824 620 628.07 18.36 450.09 96.92 2.44356

250 250.05 0.7329 178.28 979.0 1.51917 630 638.63 19.84 457.78 92.84 2.46048260 260.09 0.8405 185.45 887.8 1.55848 640 649.22 20.64 465.50 88.99 2.47716270 270.11 0.9590 192.60 808.0 1.59634 650 659.84 21.86 473.25 85.34 2.49364280 280.13 1.0889 199.75 738.0 1.63279 660 670.47 23.13 481.01 81.89 2.50985285 285.14 1.1584 203.33 706.1 1.65055 670 681.14 24.46 488.81 78.61 2.52589

290 290.16 1.2311 206.91 676.1 1.66802 680 691.82 25.85 496.62 75.50 2.54175295 295.17 1.3068 210.49 647.9 1.68515 690 702.52 27.29 504.45 72.56 2.55731298 298.18 1.3543 212.64 631.9 1.69528 700 713.27 28.80 512.33 69.76 2.57277300 300.19 1.3860 214.07 621.2 1.70203 710 724.04 30.38 520.23 67.07 2.58810305 305.22 1.4686 217.67 596.0 1.71865 720 734.82 32.02 528.14 64.53 2.60319

310 310.24 1.5546 221.25 572.3 1.73498 730 745.62 33.72 536.07 62.13 2.61803315 315.27 1.6442 224.85 549.8 1.75106 740 756.44 35.50 544.02 59.82 2.63280320 320.29 1.7375 228.42 528.6 1.76690 750 767.29 37.35 551.99 57.63 2.64737325 325.31 1.8345 232.02 508.4 1.78249 760 778.18 39.27 560.01 55.54 2.66176330 330.34 1.9352 235.61 489.4 1.79783 780 800.03 43.35 576.12 51.64 2.69013

340 340.42 2.149 242.82 454.1 1.82790 800 821.95 47.75 592.30 48.08 2.71787350 350.49 2.379 250.02 422.2 1.85708 820 843.98 52.59 608.59 44.84 2.74504360 360.58 2.626 257.24 393.4 1.88543 840 866.08 57.60 624.95 41.85 2.77170370 370.67 2.892 264.46 367.2 1.91313 860 888.27 63.09 641.40 39.12 2.79783380 380.77 3.176 271.69 343.4 1.94001 880 910.56 68.98 657.95 36.61 2.82344

390 390.88 3.481 278.93 321.5 1.96633 900 932.93 75.29 674.58 34.31 2.84856400 400.98 3.806 286.16 301.6 1.99194 920 955.38 82.05 691.28 32.18 2.87324410 411.12 4.153 293.43 283.3 2.01699 940 977.92 89.28 708.08 30.22 2.89748420 421.26 4.522 300.69 266.6 2.04142 960 1000.55 97.00 725.02 28.40 2.92128430 431.43 4.915 307.99 251.1 2.06533 980 1023.25 105.2 741.98 26.73 2.94468

440 441.61 5.332 315.30 236.8 2.08870 1000 1046.04 114.0 758.94 25.17 2.96770450 451.80 5.775 322.62 223.6 2.11161 1020 1068.89 123.4 776.10 23.72 2.99034460 462.02 6.245 329.97 211.4 2.13407 1040 1091.85 133.3 793.36 23.29 3.01260470 472.24 6.742 337.32 200.1 2.15604 1060 1114.86 143.9 810.62 21.14 3.03449480 482.49 7.268 344.70 189.5 2.17760 1080 1137.89 155.2 827.88 19.98 3.05608

490 492.74 7.824 352.08 179.7 2.19876 1100 1161.07 167.1 845.33 18.896 3.07732500 503.02 8.411 359.49 170.6 2.21952 1120 1184.28 179.7 862.79 17.886 3.09825510 513.32 9.031 366.92 162.1 2.23993 1140 1207.57 193.1 880.35 16.946 3.11883520 523.63 9.684 374.36 154.1 2.25997 1160 1230.92 207.2 897.91 16.064 3.13916530 533.98 10.37 381.84 146.7 2.27967 1180 1254.34 222.2 915.57 15.241 3.15916

540 544.35 11.10 389.34 139.7 2.29906 1200 1277.79 238.0 933.33 14.470 3.17888550 555.74 11.86 396.86 133.1 2.31809 1220 1301.31 254.7 951.09 13.747 3.19834560 565.17 12.66 404.42 127.0 2.33685 1240 1324.93 272.3 968.95 13.069 3.21751570 575.59 13.50 411.97 121.2 2.35531

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TABLE A–17

Ideal-gas properties of air (Concluded)

T h u s° T h u s°K kJ/kg Pr kJ/kg vr kJ/kg · K K kJ/kg Pr kJ/kg vr kJ/kg · K

1260 1348.55 290.8 986.90 12.435 3.23638 1600 1757.57 791.2 1298.30 5.804 3.523641280 1372.24 310.4 1004.76 11.835 3.25510 1620 1782.00 834.1 1316.96 5.574 3.53879

1300 1395.97 330.9 1022.82 11.275 3.27345 1640 1806.46 878.9 1335.72 5.355 3.553811320 1419.76 352.5 1040.88 10.747 3.29160 1660 1830.96 925.6 1354.48 5.147 3.568671340 1443.60 375.3 1058.94 10.247 3.30959 1680 1855.50 974.2 1373.24 4.949 3.583351360 1467.49 399.1 1077.10 9.780 3.32724 1700 1880.1 1025 1392.7 4.761 3.59791380 1491.44 424.2 1095.26 9.337 3.34474 1750 1941.6 1161 1439.8 4.328 3.6336

1400 1515.42 450.5 1113.52 8.919 3.36200 1800 2003.3 1310 1487.2 3.994 3.66841420 1539.44 478.0 1131.77 8.526 3.37901 1850 2065.3 1475 1534.9 3.601 3.70231440 1563.51 506.9 1150.13 8.153 3.39586 1900 2127.4 1655 1582.6 3.295 3.73541460 1587.63 537.1 1168.49 7.801 3.41247 1950 2189.7 1852 1630.6 3.022 3.76771480 1611.79 568.8 1186.95 7.468 3.42892 2000 2252.1 2068 1678.7 2.776 3.7994

1500 1635.97 601.9 1205.41 7.152 3.44516 2050 2314.6 2303 1726.8 2.555 3.83031520 1660.23 636.5 1223.87 6.854 3.46120 2100 2377.7 2559 1775.3 2.356 3.86051540 1684.51 672.8 1242.43 6.569 3.47712 2150 2440.3 2837 1823.8 2.175 3.89011560 1708.82 710.5 1260.99 6.301 3.49276 2200 2503.2 3138 1872.4 2.012 3.91911580 1733.17 750.0 1279.65 6.046 3.50829 2250 2566.4 3464 1921.3 1.864 3.9474

Note: The properties Pr (relative pressure) and vr (relative specific volume) are dimensionless quantities used in the analysis of isentropic processes, andshould not be confused with the properties pressure and specific volume.

Source: Kenneth Wark, Thermodynamics, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983), pp. 785–86, table A–5. Originally published in J. H. Keenan and J. Kaye, Gas Tables (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1948).

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TABLE A–18Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen, N2

T_h

_u

_s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K

0 0 0 0 600 17,563 12,574 212.066220 6,391 4,562 182.639 610 17,864 12,792 212.564230 6,683 4,770 183.938 620 18,166 13,011 213.055240 6,975 4,979 185.180 630 18,468 13,230 213.541250 7,266 5,188 186.370 640 18,772 13,450 214.018

260 7,558 5,396 187.514 650 19,075 13,671 214.489270 7,849 5,604 188.614 660 19,380 13,892 214.954280 8,141 5,813 189.673 670 19,685 14,114 215.413290 8,432 6,021 190.695 680 19,991 14,337 215.866298 8,669 6,190 191.502 690 20,297 14,560 216.314

300 8,723 6,229 191.682 700 20,604 14,784 216.756310 9,014 6,437 192.638 710 20,912 15,008 217.192320 9,306 6,645 193.562 720 21,220 15,234 217.624330 9,597 6,853 194.459 730 21,529 15,460 218.059340 9,888 7,061 195.328 740 21,839 15,686 218.472

350 10,180 7,270 196.173 750 22,149 15,913 218.889360 10,471 7,478 196.995 760 22,460 16,141 219.301370 10,763 7,687 197.794 770 22,772 16,370 219.709380 11,055 7,895 198.572 780 23,085 16,599 220.113390 11,347 8,104 199.331 790 23,398 16,830 220.512

400 11,640 8,314 200.071 800 23,714 17,061 220.907410 11,932 8,523 200.794 810 24,027 17,292 221.298420 12,225 8,733 201.499 820 24,342 17,524 221.684430 12,518 8,943 202.189 830 24,658 17,757 222.067440 12,811 9,153 202.863 840 24,974 17,990 222.447

450 13,105 9,363 203.523 850 25,292 18,224 222.822460 13,399 9,574 204.170 860 25,610 18,459 223.194470 13,693 9,786 204.803 870 25,928 18,695 223.562480 13,988 9,997 205.424 880 26,248 18,931 223.927490 14,285 10,210 206.033 890 26,568 19,168 224.288

500 14,581 10,423 206.630 900 26,890 19,407 224.647510 14,876 10,635 207.216 910 27,210 19,644 225.002520 15,172 10,848 207.792 920 27,532 19,883 225.353530 15,469 11,062 208.358 930 27,854 20,122 225.701540 15,766 11,277 208.914 940 28,178 20,362 226.047

550 16,064 11,492 209.461 950 28,501 20,603 226.389560 16,363 11,707 209.999 960 28,826 20,844 226.728570 16,662 11,923 210.528 970 29,151 21,086 227.064580 16,962 12,139 211.049 980 29,476 21,328 227.398590 17,262 12,356 211.562 990 29,803 21,571 227.728

938 | Thermodynamics

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TABLE A–18Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen, N2 (Concluded)

T_h

_u

_s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K

1000 30,129 21,815 228.057 1760 56,227 41,594 247.3961020 30,784 22,304 228.706 1780 56,938 42,139 247.7981040 31,442 22,795 229.344 1800 57,651 42,685 248.1951060 32,101 23,288 229.973 1820 58,363 43,231 248.5891080 32,762 23,782 230.591 1840 59,075 43,777 248.979

1100 33,426 24,280 231.199 1860 59,790 44,324 249.3651120 34,092 24,780 231.799 1880 60,504 44,873 249.7481140 34,760 25,282 232.391 1900 61,220 45,423 250.1281160 35,430 25,786 232.973 1920 61,936 45,973 250.5021180 36,104 26,291 233.549 1940 62,654 46,524 250.874

1200 36,777 26,799 234.115 1960 63,381 47,075 251.2421220 37,452 27,308 234.673 1980 64,090 47,627 251.6071240 38,129 27,819 235.223 2000 64,810 48,181 251.9691260 38,807 28,331 235.766 2050 66,612 49,567 252.8581280 39,488 28,845 236.302 2100 68,417 50,957 253.726

1300 40,170 29,361 236.831 2150 70,226 52,351 254.5781320 40,853 29,378 237.353 2200 72,040 53,749 255.4121340 41,539 30,398 237.867 2250 73,856 55,149 256.2271360 42,227 30,919 238.376 2300 75,676 56,553 257.0271380 42,915 31,441 238.878 2350 77,496 57,958 257.810

1400 43,605 31,964 239.375 2400 79,320 59,366 258.5801420 44,295 32,489 239.865 2450 81,149 60,779 259.3321440 44,988 33,014 240.350 2500 82,981 62,195 260.0731460 45,682 33,543 240.827 2550 84,814 63,613 260.7991480 46,377 34,071 241.301 2600 86,650 65,033 261.512

1500 47,073 34,601 241.768 2650 88,488 66,455 262.2131520 47,771 35,133 242.228 2700 90,328 67,880 262.9021540 48,470 35,665 242.685 2750 92,171 69,306 263.5771560 49,168 36,197 243.137 2800 94,014 70,734 264.2411580 49,869 36,732 243.585 2850 95,859 72,163 264.895

1600 50,571 37,268 244.028 2900 97,705 73,593 265.5381620 51,275 37,806 244.464 2950 99,556 75,028 266.1701640 51,980 38,344 244.896 3000 101,407 76,464 266.7931660 52,686 38,884 245.324 3050 103,260 77,902 267.4041680 53,393 39,424 245.747 3100 105,115 79,341 268.007

1700 54,099 39,965 246.166 3150 106,972 80,782 268.6011720 54,807 40,507 246.580 3200 108,830 82,224 269.1861740 55,516 41,049 246.990 3250 110,690 83,668 269.763

Source: Tables A–18 through A–25 are adapted from Kenneth Wark, Thermodynamics, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983), pp. 787–98. Originallypublished in JANAF, Thermochemical Tables, NSRDS-NBS-37, 1971.

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TABLE A–19Ideal-gas properties of oxygen, O2

T_h

_u

__s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K

0 0 0 0 600 17,929 12,940 226.346220 6,404 4,575 196.171 610 18,250 13,178 226.877230 6,694 4,782 197.461 620 18,572 13,417 227.400240 6,984 4,989 198.696 630 18,895 13,657 227.918250 7,275 5,197 199.885 640 19,219 13,898 228.429

260 7,566 5,405 201.027 650 19,544 14,140 228.932270 7,858 5,613 202.128 660 19,870 14,383 229.430280 8,150 5,822 203.191 670 20,197 14,626 229.920290 8,443 6,032 204.218 680 20,524 14,871 230.405298 8,682 6,203 205.033 690 20,854 15,116 230.885

300 8,736 6,242 205.213 700 21,184 15,364 231.358310 9,030 6,453 206.177 710 21,514 15,611 231.827320 9,325 6,664 207.112 720 21,845 15,859 232.291330 9,620 6,877 208.020 730 22,177 16,107 232.748340 9,916 7,090 208.904 740 22,510 16,357 233.201

350 10,213 7,303 209.765 750 22,844 16,607 233.649360 10,511 7,518 210.604 760 23,178 16,859 234.091370 10,809 7,733 211.423 770 23,513 17,111 234.528380 11,109 7,949 212.222 780 23,850 17,364 234.960390 11,409 8,166 213.002 790 24,186 17,618 235.387

400 11,711 8,384 213.765 800 24,523 17,872 235.810410 12,012 8,603 214.510 810 24,861 18,126 236.230420 12,314 8,822 215.241 820 25,199 18,382 236.644430 12,618 9,043 215.955 830 25,537 18,637 237.055440 12,923 9,264 216.656 840 25,877 18,893 237.462

450 13,228 9,487 217.342 850 26,218 19,150 237.864460 13,525 9,710 218.016 860 26,559 19,408 238.264470 13,842 9,935 218.676 870 26,899 19,666 238.660480 14,151 10,160 219.326 880 27,242 19,925 239.051490 14,460 10,386 219.963 890 27,584 20,185 239.439

500 14,770 10,614 220.589 900 27,928 20,445 239.823510 15,082 10,842 221.206 910 28,272 20,706 240.203520 15,395 11,071 221.812 920 28,616 20,967 240.580530 15,708 11,301 222.409 930 28,960 21,228 240.953540 16,022 11,533 222.997 940 29,306 21,491 241.323

550 16,338 11,765 223.576 950 29,652 21,754 241.689560 16,654 11,998 224.146 960 29,999 22,017 242.052570 16,971 12,232 224.708 970 30,345 22,280 242.411580 17,290 12,467 225.262 980 30,692 22,544 242.768590 17,609 12,703 225.808 990 31,041 22,809 242.120

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TABLE A–19Ideal-gas properties of oxygen, O2 (Concluded )

T_h

_u

_s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K

1000 31,389 23,075 243.471 1760 58,880 44,247 263.8611020 32,088 23,607 244.164 1780 59,624 44,825 264.2831040 32,789 24,142 244.844 1800 60,371 45,405 264.7011060 33,490 24,677 245.513 1820 61,118 45,986 265.1131080 34,194 25,214 246.171 1840 61,866 46,568 265.521

1100 34,899 25,753 246.818 1860 62,616 47,151 265.9251120 35,606 26,294 247.454 1880 63,365 47,734 266.3261140 36,314 26,836 248.081 1900 64,116 48,319 266.7221160 37,023 27,379 248.698 1920 64,868 48,904 267.1151180 37,734 27,923 249.307 1940 65,620 49,490 267.505

1200 38,447 28,469 249.906 1960 66,374 50,078 267.8911220 39,162 29,018 250.497 1980 67,127 50,665 268.2751240 39,877 29,568 251.079 2000 67,881 51,253 268.6551260 40,594 30,118 251.653 2050 69,772 52,727 269.5881280 41,312 30,670 252.219 2100 71,668 54,208 270.504

1300 42,033 31,224 252.776 2150 73,573 55,697 271.3991320 42,753 31,778 253.325 2200 75,484 57,192 272.2781340 43,475 32,334 253.868 2250 77,397 58,690 273.1361360 44,198 32,891 254.404 2300 79,316 60,193 273.8911380 44,923 33,449 254.932 2350 81,243 61,704 274.809

1400 45,648 34,008 255.454 2400 83,174 63,219 275.6251420 46,374 34,567 255.968 2450 85,112 64,742 276.4241440 47,102 35,129 256.475 2500 87,057 66,271 277.2071460 47,831 35,692 256.978 2550 89,004 67,802 277.9791480 48,561 36,256 257.474 2600 90,956 69,339 278.738

1500 49,292 36,821 257.965 2650 92,916 70,883 279.4851520 50,024 37,387 258.450 2700 94,881 72,433 280.2191540 50,756 37,952 258.928 2750 96,852 73,987 280.9421560 51,490 38,520 259.402 2800 98,826 75,546 281.6541580 52,224 39,088 259.870 2850 100,808 77,112 282.357

1600 52,961 39,658 260.333 2900 102,793 78,682 283.0481620 53,696 40,227 260.791 2950 104,785 80,258 283.7281640 54,434 40,799 261.242 3000 106,780 81,837 284.3991660 55,172 41,370 261.690 3050 108,778 83,419 285.0601680 55,912 41,944 262.132 3100 110,784 85,009 285.713

1700 56,652 42,517 262.571 3150 112,795 86,601 286.3551720 57,394 43,093 263.005 3200 114,809 88,203 286.9891740 58,136 43,669 263.435 3250 116,827 89,804 287.614

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TABLE A–20Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide, CO2

T_h

_u

_s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K

0 0 0 0 600 22,280 17,291 243.199220 6,601 4,772 202.966 610 22,754 17,683 243.983230 6,938 5,026 204.464 620 23,231 18,076 244.758240 7,280 5,285 205.920 630 23,709 18,471 245.524250 7,627 5,548 207.337 640 24,190 18,869 246.282

260 7,979 5,817 208.717 650 24,674 19,270 247.032270 8,335 6,091 210.062 660 25,160 19,672 247.773280 8,697 6,369 211.376 670 25,648 20,078 248.507290 9,063 6,651 212.660 680 26,138 20,484 249.233298 9,364 6,885 213.685 690 26,631 20,894 249.952

300 9,431 6,939 213.915 700 27,125 21,305 250.663310 9,807 7,230 215.146 710 27,622 21,719 251.368320 10,186 7,526 216.351 720 28,121 22,134 252.065330 10,570 7,826 217.534 730 28,622 22,522 252.755340 10,959 8,131 218.694 740 29,124 22,972 253.439

350 11,351 8,439 219.831 750 29,629 23,393 254.117360 11,748 8,752 220.948 760 30,135 23,817 254.787370 12,148 9,068 222.044 770 30,644 24,242 255.452380 12,552 9,392 223.122 780 31,154 24,669 256.110390 12,960 9,718 224.182 790 31,665 25,097 256.762

400 13,372 10,046 225.225 800 32,179 25,527 257.408410 13,787 10,378 226.250 810 32,694 25,959 258.048420 14,206 10,714 227.258 820 33,212 26,394 258.682430 14,628 11,053 228.252 830 33,730 26,829 259.311440 15,054 11,393 229.230 840 34,251 27,267 259.934

450 15,483 11,742 230.194 850 34,773 27,706 260.551460 15,916 12,091 231.144 860 35,296 28,125 261.164470 16,351 12,444 232.080 870 35,821 28,588 261.770480 16,791 12,800 233.004 880 36,347 29,031 262.371490 17,232 13,158 233.916 890 36,876 29,476 262.968

500 17,678 13,521 234.814 900 37,405 29,922 263.559510 18,126 13,885 235.700 910 37,935 30,369 264.146520 18,576 14,253 236.575 920 38,467 30,818 264.728530 19,029 14,622 237.439 930 39,000 31,268 265.304540 19,485 14,996 238.292 940 39,535 31,719 265.877

550 19,945 15,372 239.135 950 40,070 32,171 266.444560 20,407 15,751 239.962 960 40,607 32,625 267.007570 20,870 16,131 240.789 970 41,145 33,081 267.566580 21,337 16,515 241.602 980 41,685 33,537 268.119590 21,807 16,902 242.405 990 42,226 33,995 268.670

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TABLE A–20Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide, CO2 (Concluded)

T_h

_u

__s ° T

_h

_u

__s °

K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K

1000 42,769 34,455 269.215 1760 86,420 71,787 301.5431020 43,859 35,378 270.293 1780 87,612 72,812 302.2171040 44,953 36,306 271.354 1800 88,806 73,840 302.8841060 46,051 37,238 272.400 1820 90,000 74,868 303.5441080 47,153 38,174 273.430 1840 91,196 75,897 304.198

1100 48,258 39,112 274.445 1860 92,394 76,929 304.8451120 49,369 40,057 275.444 1880 93,593 77,962 305.4871140 50,484 41,006 276.430 1900 94,793 78,996 306.1221160 51,602 41,957 277.403 1920 95,995 80,031 306.7511180 52,724 42,913 278.361 1940 97,197 81,067 307.374

1200 53,848 43,871 297.307 1960 98,401 82,105 307.9921220 54,977 44,834 280.238 1980 99,606 83,144 308.6041240 56,108 45,799 281.158 2000 100,804 84,185 309.2101260 57,244 46,768 282.066 2050 103,835 86,791 310.7011280 58,381 47,739 282.962 2100 106,864 89,404 312.160

1300 59,522 48,713 283.847 2150 109,898 92,023 313.5891320 60,666 49,691 284.722 2200 112,939 94,648 314.9881340 61,813 50,672 285.586 2250 115,984 97,277 316.3561360 62,963 51,656 286.439 2300 119,035 99,912 317.6951380 64,116 52,643 287.283 2350 122,091 102,552 319.011

1400 65,271 53,631 288.106 2400 125,152 105,197 320.3021420 66,427 54,621 288.934 2450 128,219 107,849 321.5661440 67,586 55,614 289.743 2500 131,290 110,504 322.8081460 68,748 56,609 290.542 2550 134,368 113,166 324.0261480 66,911 57,606 291.333 2600 137,449 115,832 325.222

1500 71,078 58,606 292.114 2650 140,533 118,500 326.3961520 72,246 59,609 292.888 2700 143,620 121,172 327.5491540 73,417 60,613 292.654 2750 146,713 123,849 328.6841560 74,590 61,620 294.411 2800 149,808 126,528 329.8001580 76,767 62,630 295.161 2850 152,908 129,212 330.896

1600 76,944 63,741 295.901 2900 156,009 131,898 331.9751620 78,123 64,653 296.632 2950 159,117 134,589 333.0371640 79,303 65,668 297.356 3000 162,226 137,283 334.0841660 80,486 66,592 298.072 3050 165,341 139,982 335.1141680 81,670 67,702 298.781 3100 168,456 142,681 336.126

1700 82,856 68,721 299.482 3150 171,576 145,385 337.1241720 84,043 69,742 300.177 3200 174,695 148,089 338.1091740 85,231 70,764 300.863 3250 177,822 150,801 339.069

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TABLE A – 21Ideal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, CO

T_h

_u

_s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K

0 0 0 0 600 17,611 12,622 218.204220 6,391 4,562 188.683 610 17,915 12,843 218.708230 6,683 4,771 189.980 620 18,221 13,066 219.205240 6,975 4,979 191.221 630 18,527 13,289 219.695250 7,266 5,188 192.411 640 18,833 13,512 220.179

260 7,558 5,396 193.554 650 19,141 13,736 220.656270 7,849 5,604 194.654 660 19,449 13,962 221.127280 8,140 5,812 195.713 670 19,758 14,187 221.592290 8,432 6,020 196.735 680 20,068 14,414 222.052298 8,669 6,190 197.543 690 20,378 14,641 222.505

300 8,723 6,229 197.723 700 20,690 14,870 222.953310 9,014 6,437 198.678 710 21,002 15,099 223.396320 9,306 6,645 199.603 720 21,315 15,328 223.833330 9,597 6,854 200.500 730 21,628 15,558 224.265340 9,889 7,062 201.371 740 21,943 15,789 224.692

350 10,181 7,271 202.217 750 22,258 16,022 225.115360 10,473 7,480 203.040 760 22,573 16,255 225.533370 10,765 7,689 203.842 770 22,890 16,488 225.947380 11,058 7,899 204.622 780 23,208 16,723 226.357390 11,351 8,108 205.383 790 23,526 16,957 226.762

400 11,644 8,319 206.125 800 23,844 17,193 227.162410 11,938 8,529 206.850 810 24,164 17,429 227.559420 12,232 8,740 207.549 820 24,483 17,665 227.952430 12,526 8,951 208.252 830 24,803 17,902 228.339440 12,821 9,163 208.929 840 25,124 18,140 228.724

450 13,116 9,375 209.593 850 25,446 18,379 229.106460 13,412 9,587 210.243 860 25,768 18,617 229.482470 13,708 9,800 210.880 870 26,091 18,858 229.856480 14,005 10,014 211.504 880 26,415 19,099 230.227490 14,302 10,228 212.117 890 26,740 19,341 230.593

500 14,600 10,443 212.719 900 27,066 19,583 230.957510 14,898 10,658 213.310 910 27,392 19,826 231.317520 15,197 10,874 213.890 920 27,719 20,070 231.674530 15,497 11,090 214.460 930 28,046 20,314 232.028540 15,797 11,307 215.020 940 28,375 20,559 232.379

550 16,097 11,524 215.572 950 28,703 20,805 232.727560 16,399 11,743 216.115 960 29,033 21,051 233.072570 16,701 11,961 216.649 970 29,362 21,298 233.413580 17,003 12,181 217.175 980 29,693 21,545 233.752590 17,307 12,401 217.693 990 30,024 21,793 234.088

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TABLE A–21Ideal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, CO (Concluded)

T_h

_u

_s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K

1000 30,355 22,041 234.421 1760 56,756 42,123 253.9911020 31,020 22,540 235.079 1780 57,473 42,673 254.3981040 31,688 23,041 235.728 1800 58,191 43,225 254.7971060 32,357 23,544 236.364 1820 58,910 43,778 255.1941080 33,029 24,049 236.992 1840 59,629 44,331 255.587

1100 33,702 24,557 237.609 1860 60,351 44,886 255.9761120 34,377 25,065 238.217 1880 61,072 45,441 256.3611140 35,054 25,575 238.817 1900 61,794 45,997 256.7431160 35,733 26,088 239.407 1920 62,516 46,552 257.1221180 36,406 26,602 239.989 1940 63,238 47,108 257.497

1200 37,095 27,118 240.663 1960 63,961 47,665 257.8681220 37,780 27,637 241.128 1980 64,684 48,221 258.2361240 38,466 28,426 241.686 2000 65,408 48,780 258.6001260 39,154 28,678 242.236 2050 67,224 50,179 259.4941280 39,844 29,201 242.780 2100 69,044 51,584 260.370

1300 40,534 29,725 243.316 2150 70,864 52,988 261.2261320 41,226 30,251 243.844 2200 72,688 54,396 262.0651340 41,919 30,778 244.366 2250 74,516 55,809 262.8871360 42,613 31,306 244.880 2300 76,345 57,222 263.6921380 43,309 31,836 245.388 2350 78,178 58,640 264.480

1400 44,007 32,367 245.889 2400 80,015 60,060 265.2531420 44,707 32,900 246.385 2450 81,852 61,482 266.0121440 45,408 33,434 246.876 2500 83,692 62,906 266.7551460 46,110 33,971 247.360 2550 85,537 64,335 267.4851480 46,813 34,508 247.839 2600 87,383 65,766 268.202

1500 47,517 35,046 248.312 2650 89,230 67,197 268.9051520 48,222 35,584 248.778 2700 91,077 68,628 269.5961540 48,928 36,124 249.240 2750 92,930 70,066 270.2851560 49,635 36,665 249.695 2800 94,784 71,504 270.9431580 50,344 37,207 250.147 2850 96,639 72,945 271.602

1600 51,053 37,750 250.592 2900 98,495 74,383 272.2491620 51,763 38,293 251.033 2950 100,352 75,825 272.8841640 52,472 38,837 251.470 3000 102,210 77,267 273.5081660 53,184 39,382 251.901 3050 104,073 78,715 274.1231680 53,895 39,927 252.329 3100 105,939 80,164 274.730

1700 54,609 40,474 252.751 3150 107,802 81,612 275.3261720 55,323 41,023 253.169 3200 109,667 83,061 275.9141740 56,039 41,572 253.582 3250 111,534 84,513 276.494

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TABLE A–22Ideal-gas properties of hydrogen, H2

T_h

_u

_s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K

0 0 0 0 1440 42,808 30,835 177.410260 7,370 5,209 126.636 1480 44,091 31,786 178.291270 7,657 5,412 127.719 1520 45,384 32,746 179.153280 7,945 5,617 128.765 1560 46,683 33,713 179.995290 8,233 5,822 129.775 1600 47,990 34,687 180.820

298 8,468 5,989 130.574 1640 49,303 35,668 181.632300 8,522 6,027 130.754 1680 50,622 36,654 182.428320 9,100 6,440 132.621 1720 51,947 37,646 183.208340 9,680 6,853 134.378 1760 53,279 38,645 183.973360 10,262 7,268 136.039 1800 54,618 39,652 184.724

380 10,843 7,684 137.612 1840 55,962 40,663 185.463400 11,426 8,100 139.106 1880 57,311 41,680 186.190420 12,010 8,518 140.529 1920 58,668 42,705 186.904440 12,594 8,936 141.888 1960 60,031 43,735 187.607460 13,179 9,355 143.187 2000 61,400 44,771 188.297

480 13,764 9,773 144.432 2050 63,119 46,074 189.148500 14,350 10,193 145.628 2100 64,847 47,386 189.979520 14,935 10,611 146.775 2150 66,584 48,708 190.796560 16,107 11,451 148.945 2200 68,328 50,037 191.598600 17,280 12,291 150.968 2250 70,080 51,373 192.385

640 18,453 13,133 152.863 2300 71,839 52,716 193.159680 19,630 13,976 154.645 2350 73,608 54,069 193.921720 20,807 14,821 156.328 2400 75,383 55,429 194.669760 21,988 15,669 157.923 2450 77,168 56,798 195.403800 23,171 16,520 159.440 2500 78,960 58,175 196.125

840 24,359 17,375 160.891 2550 80,755 59,554 196.837880 25,551 18,235 162.277 2600 82,558 60,941 197.539920 26,747 19,098 163.607 2650 84,368 62,335 198.229960 27,948 19,966 164.884 2700 86,186 63,737 198.907

1000 29,154 20,839 166.114 2750 88,008 65,144 199.575

1040 30,364 21,717 167.300 2800 89,838 66,558 200.2341080 31,580 22,601 168.449 2850 91,671 67,976 200.8851120 32,802 23,490 169.560 2900 93,512 69,401 201.5271160 34,028 24,384 170.636 2950 95,358 70,831 202.1571200 35,262 25,284 171.682 3000 97,211 72,268 202.778

1240 36,502 26,192 172.698 3050 99,065 73,707 203.3911280 37,749 27,106 173.687 3100 100,926 75,152 203.9951320 39,002 28,027 174.652 3150 102,793 76,604 204.5921360 40,263 28,955 175.593 3200 104,667 78,061 205.1811400 41,530 29,889 176.510 3250 106,545 79,523 205.765

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TABLE A–23Ideal-gas properties of water vapor, H2O

T__h

_u

_s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K

0 0 0 0 600 20,402 15,413 212.920220 7,295 5,466 178.576 610 20,765 15,693 213.529230 7,628 5,715 180.054 620 21,130 15,975 214.122240 7,961 5,965 181.471 630 21,495 16,257 214.707250 8,294 6,215 182.831 640 21,862 16,541 215.285

260 8,627 6,466 184.139 650 22,230 16,826 215.856270 8,961 6,716 185.399 660 22,600 17,112 216.419280 9,296 6,968 186.616 670 22,970 17,399 216.976290 9,631 7,219 187.791 680 23,342 17,688 217.527298 9,904 7,425 188.720 690 23,714 17,978 218.071

300 9,966 7,472 188.928 700 24,088 18,268 218.610310 10,302 7,725 190.030 710 24,464 18,561 219.142320 10,639 7,978 191.098 720 24,840 18,854 219.668330 10,976 8,232 192.136 730 25,218 19,148 220.189340 11,314 8,487 193.144 740 25,597 19,444 220.707

350 11,652 8,742 194.125 750 25,977 19,741 221.215360 11,992 8,998 195.081 760 26,358 20,039 221.720370 12,331 9,255 196.012 770 26,741 20,339 222.221380 12,672 9,513 196.920 780 27,125 20,639 222.717390 13,014 9,771 197.807 790 27,510 20,941 223.207

400 13,356 10,030 198.673 800 27,896 21,245 223.693410 13,699 10,290 199.521 810 28,284 21,549 224.174420 14,043 10,551 200.350 820 28,672 21,855 224.651430 14,388 10,813 201.160 830 29,062 22,162 225.123440 14,734 11,075 201.955 840 29,454 22,470 225.592

450 15,080 11,339 202.734 850 29,846 22,779 226.057460 15,428 11,603 203.497 860 30,240 23,090 226.517470 15,777 11,869 204.247 870 30,635 23,402 226.973480 16,126 12,135 204.982 880 31,032 23,715 227.426490 16,477 12,403 205.705 890 31,429 24,029 227.875

500 16,828 12,671 206.413 900 31,828 24,345 228.321510 17,181 12,940 207.112 910 32,228 24,662 228.763520 17,534 13,211 207.799 920 32,629 24,980 229.202530 17,889 13,482 208.475 930 33,032 25,300 229.637540 18,245 13,755 209.139 940 33,436 25,621 230.070

550 18,601 14,028 209.795 950 33,841 25,943 230.499560 18,959 14,303 210.440 960 34,247 26,265 230.924570 19,318 14,579 211.075 970 34,653 26,588 231.347580 19,678 14,856 211.702 980 35,061 26,913 231.767590 20,039 15,134 212.320 990 35,472 27,240 232.184

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TABLE A–23Ideal-gas properties of water vapor, H2O (Concluded )

T__h

_u

_s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K

1000 35,882 27,568 232.597 1760 70,535 55,902 258.1511020 36,709 28,228 233.415 1780 71,523 56,723 258.7081040 37,542 28,895 234.223 1800 72,513 57,547 259.2621060 38,380 29,567 235.020 1820 73,507 58,375 259.8111080 39,223 30,243 235.806 1840 74,506 59,207 260.357

1100 40,071 30,925 236.584 1860 75,506 60,042 260.8981120 40,923 31,611 237.352 1880 76,511 60,880 261.4361140 41,780 32,301 238.110 1900 77,517 61,720 261.9691160 42,642 32,997 238.859 1920 78,527 62,564 262.4971180 43,509 33,698 239.600 1940 79,540 63,411 263.022

1200 44,380 34,403 240.333 1960 80,555 64,259 263.5421220 45,256 35,112 241.057 1980 81,573 65,111 264.0591240 46,137 35,827 241.773 2000 82,593 65,965 264.5711260 47,022 36,546 242.482 2050 85,156 68,111 265.8381280 47,912 37,270 243.183 2100 87,735 70,275 267.081

1300 48,807 38,000 243.877 2150 90,330 72,454 268.3011320 49,707 38,732 244.564 2200 92,940 74,649 269.5001340 50,612 39,470 245.243 2250 95,562 76,855 270.6791360 51,521 40,213 245.915 2300 98,199 79,076 271.8391380 52,434 40,960 246.582 2350 100,846 81,308 272.978

1400 53,351 41,711 247.241 2400 103,508 83,553 274.0981420 54,273 42,466 247.895 2450 106,183 85,811 275.2011440 55,198 43,226 248.543 2500 108,868 88,082 276.2861460 56,128 43,989 249.185 2550 111,565 90,364 277.3541480 57,062 44,756 249.820 2600 114,273 92,656 278.407

1500 57,999 45,528 250.450 2650 116,991 94,958 279.4411520 58,942 46,304 251.074 2700 119,717 97,269 280.4621540 59,888 47,084 251.693 2750 122,453 99,588 281.4641560 60,838 47,868 252.305 2800 125,198 101,917 282.4531580 61,792 48,655 252.912 2850 127,952 104,256 283.429

1600 62,748 49,445 253.513 2900 130,717 106,605 284.3901620 63,709 50,240 254.111 2950 133,486 108,959 285.3381640 64,675 51,039 254.703 3000 136,264 111,321 286.2731660 65,643 51,841 255.290 3050 139,051 113,692 287.1941680 66,614 52,646 255.873 3100 141,846 116,072 288.102

1700 67,589 53,455 256.450 3150 144,648 118,458 288.9991720 68,567 54,267 257.022 3200 147,457 120,851 289.8841740 69,550 55,083 257.589 3250 150,272 123,250 290.756

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TABLE A–24Ideal-gas properties of monatomic oxygen, O

T__h

_u

_s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K

0 0 0 0 2400 50,894 30,940 204.932298 6,852 4,373 160.944 2450 51,936 31,566 205.362300 6,892 4,398 161.079 2500 52,979 32,193 205.783500 11,197 7,040 172.088 2550 54,021 32,820 206.196

1000 21,713 13,398 186.678 2600 55,064 33,447 206.6011500 32,150 19,679 195.143 2650 56,108 34,075 206.9991600 34,234 20,931 196.488 2700 57,152 34,703 207.3891700 36,317 22,183 197.751 2750 58,196 35,332 207.7721800 38,400 23,434 198.941 2800 59,241 35,961 208.1481900 40,482 24,685 200.067 2850 60,286 36,590 208.5182000 42,564 25,935 201.135 2900 61,332 37,220 208.8822050 43,605 26,560 201.649 2950 62,378 37,851 209.2402100 44,646 27,186 202.151 3000 63,425 38,482 209.5922150 45,687 27,811 202.641 3100 65,520 39,746 210.2792200 46,728 28,436 203.119 3200 67,619 41,013 210.9452250 47,769 29,062 203.588 3300 69,720 42,283 211.5922300 48,811 29,688 204.045 3400 71,824 43,556 212.2202350 49,852 30,314 204.493 3500 73,932 44,832 212.831

TABLE A–25Ideal-gas properties of hydroxyl, OH

T__h

_u

_s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol ·K

0 0 0 0 2400 77,015 57,061 248.628298 9,188 6,709 183.594 2450 78,801 58,431 249.364300 9,244 6,749 183.779 2500 80,592 59,806 250.088500 15,181 11,024 198.955 2550 82,388 61,186 250.799

1000 30,123 21,809 219.624 2600 84,189 62,572 251.4991500 46,046 33,575 232.506 2650 85,995 63,962 252.1871600 49,358 36,055 234.642 2700 87,806 65,358 252.8641700 52,706 38,571 236.672 2750 89,622 66,757 253.5301800 56,089 41,123 238.606 2800 91,442 68,162 254.1861900 59,505 43,708 240.453 2850 93,266 69,570 254.8322000 62,952 46,323 242.221 2900 95,095 70,983 255.4682050 64,687 47,642 243.077 2950 96,927 72,400 256.0942100 66,428 48,968 243.917 3000 98,763 73,820 256.7122150 68,177 50,301 244.740 3100 102,447 76,673 257.9192200 69,932 51,641 245.547 3200 106,145 79,539 259.0932250 71,694 52,987 246.338 3300 109,855 82,418 260.2352300 73,462 54,339 247.116 3400 113,578 85,309 261.3472350 75,236 55,697 247.879 3500 117,312 88,212 262.429

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TABLE A–26Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs function of formation, and absolute entropy at25°C, 1 atm

_hf°

_gf°

_s °

Substance Formula kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol · K

Carbon C(s) 0 0 5.74Hydrogen H2(g) 0 0 130.68Nitrogen N2(g) 0 0 191.61Oxygen O2(g) 0 0 205.04Carbon monoxide CO(g) �110,530 �137,150 197.65Carbon dioxide CO2(g) �393,520 �394,360 213.80Water vapor H2O(g) �241,820 �228,590 188.83Water H2O(�) �285,830 �237,180 69.92Hydrogen peroxide H2O2(g) �136,310 �105,600 232.63Ammonia NH3(g) �46,190 �16,590 192.33Methane CH4(g) �74,850 �50,790 186.16Acetylene C2H2(g) +226,730 +209,170 200.85Ethylene C2H4(g) +52,280 +68,120 219.83Ethane C2H6(g) �84,680 �32,890 229.49Propylene C3H6(g) +20,410 +62,720 266.94Propane C3H8(g) �103,850 �23,490 269.91n-Butane C4H10(g) �126,150 �15,710 310.12n-Octane C8H18(g) �208,450 +16,530 466.73n-Octane C8H18(�) �249,950 +6,610 360.79n-Dodecane C12H26(g) �291,010 +50,150 622.83Benzene C6H6(g) +82,930 +129,660 269.20Methyl alcohol CH3OH(g) �200,670 �162,000 239.70Methyl alcohol CH3OH(�) �238,660 �166,360 126.80Ethyl alcohol C2H5OH(g) �235,310 �168,570 282.59Ethyl alcohol C2H5OH(�) �277,690 �174,890 160.70Oxygen O(g) +249,190 +231,770 161.06Hydrogen H(g) +218,000 +203,290 114.72Nitrogen N(g) +472,650 +455,510 153.30Hydroxyl OH(g) +39,460 +34,280 183.70

Source: From JANAF, Thermochemical Tables (Midland, MI: Dow Chemical Co., 1971); SelectedValues of Chemical Thermodynamic Properties, NBS Technical Note 270-3, 1968; and APIResearch Project 44 (Carnegie Press, 1953).

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TABLE A–27Properties of some common fuels and hydrocarbons

Higher LowerMolar Enthalpy of Specific heating heatingmass, Density,1 vaporization,2 heat,1 cp value,3 value,3

Fuel (phase) Formula kg/kmol kg/L kJ/kg kJ/kg · K kJ/kg kJ/kg

Carbon (s) C 12.011 2 — 0.708 32,800 32,800Hydrogen (g) H2 2.016 — — 14.4 141,800 120,000Carbon monoxide (g) CO 28.013 — — 1.05 10,100 10,100Methane (g) CH4 16.043 — 509 2.20 55,530 50,050Methanol (�) CH4O 32.042 0.790 1168 2.53 22,660 19,920Acetylene (g) C2H2 26.038 — — 1.69 49,970 48,280Ethane (g) C2H6 30.070 — 172 1.75 51,900 47,520Ethanol (�) C2H6O 46.069 0.790 919 2.44 29,670 26,810Propane (�) C3H8 44.097 0.500 335 2.77 50,330 46,340Butane (�) C4H10 58.123 0.579 362 2.42 49,150 45,3701-Pentene (�) C5H10 70.134 0.641 363 2.20 47,760 44,630Isopentane (�) C5H12 72.150 0.626 — 2.32 48,570 44,910Benzene (�) C6H6 78.114 0.877 433 1.72 41,800 40,100Hexene (�) C6H12 84.161 0.673 392 1.84 47,500 44,400Hexane (�) C6H14 86.177 0.660 366 2.27 48,310 44,740Toluene (�) C7H8 92.141 0.867 412 1.71 42,400 40,500Heptane (�) C7H16 100.204 0.684 365 2.24 48,100 44,600Octane (�) C8H18 114.231 0.703 363 2.23 47,890 44,430Decane (�) C10H22 142.285 0.730 361 2.21 47,640 44,240Gasoline (�) CnH1.87n 100–110 0.72–0.78 350 2.4 47,300 44,000Light diesel (�) CnH1.8n 170 0.78–0.84 270 2.2 46,100 43,200Heavy diesel (�) CnH1.7n 200 0.82–0.88 230 1.9 45,500 42,800Natural gas (g) CnH3.8nN0.1n 18 — — 2 50,000 45,000

1At 1 atm and 20°C.2At 25°C for liquid fuels, and 1 atm and normal boiling temperature for gaseous fuels.3At 25°C. Multiply by molar mass to obtain heating values in kJ/kmol.

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TABLE A–28Natural logarithms of the equilibrium constant Kp

The equilibrium constant Kp for the reaction nAA + nBB ∆ nCC + nDD is defined as Kp ≡

Temp.,K H2 ∆ 2H O2 ∆ 2O N2 ∆ 2N H2O ∆ H2 + 1/2O2 H2O ∆ 1/2H2 + OH CO2 ∆ CO + 1/2O2

1/2N2 + 1/2O2 ∆ NO

298 �164.005 �186.975 �367.480 �92.208 �106.208 �103.762 �35.052500 �92.827 �105.630 �213.372 �52.691 �60.281 �57.616 �20.295

1000 �39.803 �45.150 �99.127 �23.163 �26.034 �23.529 �9.3881200 �30.874 �35.005 �80.011 �18.182 �20.283 �17.871 �7.5691400 �24.463 �27.742 �66.329 �14.609 �16.099 �13.842 �6.2701600 �19.637 �22.285 �56.055 �11.921 �13.066 �10.830 �5.2941800 �15.866 �18.030 �48.051 �9.826 �10.657 �8.497 �4.5362000 �12.840 �14.622 �41.645 �8.145 �8.728 �6.635 �3.9312200 �10.353 �11.827 �36.391 �6.768 �7.148 �5.120 �3.4332400 �8.276 �9.497 �32.011 �5.619 �5.832 �3.860 �3.0192600 �6.517 �7.521 �28.304 �4.648 �4.719 �2.801 �2.6712800 �5.002 �5.826 �25.117 �3.812 �3.763 �1.894 �2.3723000 �3.685 �4.357 �22.359 �3.086 �2.937 �1.111 �2.1143200 �2.534 �3.072 �19.937 �2.451 �2.212 �0.429 �1.8883400 �1.516 �1.935 �17.800 �1.891 �1.576 0.169 �1.6903600 �0.609 �0.926 �15.898 �1.392 �1.088 0.701 �1.5133800 0.202 �0.019 �14.199 �0.945 �0.501 1.176 �1.3564000 0.934 0.796 �12.660 �0.542 �0.044 1.599 �1.2164500 2.486 2.513 �9.414 0.312 0.920 2.490 �0.9215000 3.725 3.895 �6.807 0.996 1.689 3.197 �0.6865500 4.743 5.023 �4.666 1.560 2.318 3.771 �0.4976000 5.590 5.963 �2.865 2.032 2.843 4.245 �0.341

Source: Gordon J. Van Wylen and Richard E. Sonntag, Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics, English/SI Version, 3rd ed. (New York: John Wiley &Sons, 1986), p. 723, table A.14. Based on thermodynamic data given in JANAF, Thermochemical Tables (Midland, MI: Thermal Research Laboratory, TheDow Chemical Company, 1971).

PCnC PD

nD

PAnA PB

nB

952 | Thermodynamics

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Appendix 1 | 953

FIGURE A–29Generalized enthalpy departure chart.

Source: John R. Howell and Richard O. Buckius,Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics,SI Version (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987), p. 558,fig. C.2, and p. 561, fig. C.5.

TT RR = 0.90

= 0.90

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

5.5

6.5

7.5

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 10 20 30

h idea

l – h

——

——

–R

uTcr

Ent

halp

y de

part

ure

Zh

==

h idea

l – h

——

——

–R

Tcr

––––

h idea

l – h

——

——

–R

uTcr

Ent

halp

y de

part

ure

Zh

==

h idea

l – h

——

——

–R

Tcr

––––

Reduced pressure, PR

0.750.750.800.80

0.850.85

0.900.90

0.920.92

0.940.94

0.960.96

0.980.98

0.500.50

0.550.55

0.600.60

0.650.65

0.700.70

0.750.750.800.80

0.850.850.900.90

0.920.920.940.940.960.960.980.981.001.00

1.00

1.00

1.021.021.041.04

1.061.06 1.081.08

1.101.10

1.10

1.10

1.151.15

1.251.251.201.20

1.20

1.20

1.401.40

1.601.60

1.801.801.701.70

1.501.50

1.501.50

1.301.30

1.30

1.30

2.802.80

2.602.602.402.40

2.202.202.002.00

2.002.00

1.901.90

3.003.00

4.004.00

0.900.900.950.95

TR

Saturated vapor

Saturated vapor

Saturated liquid

Saturated liquid

0.50

0.55

0.60

0.65

0.70

0.750.80

0.85

0.90

0.92

0.94

0.96

0.98

1.00 1.

10

0.750.80

0.850.90

0.920.940.960.981.00

1.021.04

1.06 1.08

1.101.15

1.251.20

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.801.70

1.50

1.50

1.30

1.30

2.80

2.602.40

2.202.00

2.00

1.90

3.00

4.00

0.900.95

TR

PR

0.80

0.80

1.001.00

1.101.10

1.201.20

1.401.40

1.601.60

2.002.00

Satura

ted va

pour

Satura

ted va

pour

0.80 T R

= 0.90

1.00

1.10

1.20

1.40

1.60

2.00

0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.300.000

0.100

0.200

0.300

0.400

0.500

Satura

ted va

por

Saturated vapor

Saturated liquid

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954 | Thermodynamics

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10.0

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.40.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.05.0 10 20 30

s idea

l – s

——

——

–R

uE

ntro

py d

epar

ture

Zs =

=s id

eal –

s—

——

—–

R

Ent

ropy

dep

artu

re

s idea

l – s

——

——

–R

u=

s idea

l – s

——

——

–R

Reduced pressure, PR

0.500.50

0.550.55

0.600.60

0.650.650.700.70

0.750.750.750.75

0.800.800.800.80

0.850.850.850.85

0.900.90

0.900.900.920.92

0.920.920.940.94

0.940.94

0.940.940.960.96

0.960.96

0.980.98

0.980.98

0.980.98

1.001.00

1.00

1.00

1.021.02

1.021.021.041.04

1.041.04

1.061.061.061.061.081.08

1.101.10

1.101.10

1.151.15

1.201.20

1.201.20

1.301.30

1.401.40

1.401.40

1.501.50

1.601.60

1.601.60

1.801.802.002.00 2.502.503.003.00

0.95

0.95

0.900.90

Saturated gas

Saturated gas

Tr

0.50

0.55

0.60

0.650.70

0.750.75

0.800.80

0.850.85

0.90

0.900.92

0.920.94

0.94

0.940.96

0.96

0.98

0.98

0.98

1.00

1.00

1.02

1.021.04

1.04

1.061.061.08

1.10

1.10

1.15

1.20

1.20

1.30

1.40

1.40

1.50

1.60

1.60

1.802.00 2.503.00

0.95

0.90

Saturated liquid

TR

PR

0.80

0.80

T R = 0.90= 0.90

1.001.00

1.101.10

1.201.20

1.401.401.601.602.002.00

Saturat

ed vap

our

Saturat

ed vap

our

0.80

T R = 0.90

1.00

1.10

1.20

1.401.602.00

0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.300.000

0.100

0.200

0.300

0.400

0.500

Saturat

ed vap

or

Saturated vaporSaturated vaporSaturated vapor

Zs

=

FIGURE A–30Generalized entropy departure chart.

Source: John R. Howell and Richard O. Buckius,Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics,SI Version (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987), p. 559,fig. C.3, and p. 561, fig. C.5.

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Appendix 1 | 955

Prep

ared

by

Cen

ter

for A

pplie

d T

herm

odyn

amic

Stu

dies

, Uni

vers

ity o

f Id

aho.

1.0

0.95

0.90

0.85

0.80

0.75

0.70

0.65

0.60

0.55

0.50

0.45

0.40

0.36

Ent

halp

y—

——

——

—H

umid

ity r

atio

∆h —— ∆�

=

Sensible heat —————–Total heat

∆HS——∆HT

=

60

5040

3020

Dry

bul

b te

mpe

ratu

re °C

100

708090100

110

120

Sens

ible

hea

t—

——

——

–To

tal h

eat

∆HS

——

∆HT

=

1.0

–•

–5.

0–

2.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

2.5

3.0

4.0

5.0

10.0•

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.8

0.7

1.0

1.5

2.0

4.0

–4.0

–2.0

–1.0

–0.5

–0.2

Enthalp

y (h)

kiloj

oules

per k

ilogr

am dr

y air

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Saturat

ion te

mperat

ure °

C

5

10

15

20

25

30

30

0.94

30

20

15

10

5

0.90

0.88

0.86

0.84

0.82

0.80

0.78

28

90%80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8

10%

rel

ativ

e hu

mid

ity

25 w

et b

ulb

tem

pera

ture

°C

0.92 volume cubic meter per kilogram dry air

Humidity ratio (�) grams moisture per kilogram dry air

6 4 2

ASH

RA

E P

sych

rom

etri

c C

hart

No.

1N

orm

al T

empe

ratu

reB

arom

etri

c Pr

essu

re: 1

01.3

25 k

Pa

©19

92 A

mer

ican

Soc

iety

of

Hea

ting,

R

efri

gera

ting

and

Air

-Con

ditio

ning

Eng

inee

rs, I

nc.

Sea

Lev

el

FIGU

RE A

–31

Psyc

hrom

etri

c ch

art a

t 1 a

tm to

tal p

ress

ure.

Rep

rint

ed b

y pe

rmis

sion

of t

he A

mer

ican

Soc

iety

of H

eati

ng,R

efri

gera

ting

and

Air

-Con

diti

onin

g E

ngin

eers

,Inc

.,A

tlan

ta,G

A;

used

wit

h pe

rmis

sion

.

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TABLE A–32

One-dimensional isentropic compressible flow functions for an idealgas with k � 1.4

Ma Ma* A/A* P/P0 r/r0 T/T0

0 0 � 1.0000 1.0000 1.00000.1 0.1094 5.8218 0.9930 0.9950 0.99800.2 0.2182 2.9635 0.9725 0.9803 0.99210.3 0.3257 2.0351 0.9395 0.9564 0.98230.4 0.4313 1.5901 0.8956 0.9243 0.96900.5 0.5345 1.3398 0.8430 0.8852 0.95240.6 0.6348 1.1882 0.7840 0.8405 0.93280.7 0.7318 1.0944 0.7209 0.7916 0.91070.8 0.8251 1.0382 0.6560 0.7400 0.88650.9 0.9146 1.0089 0.5913 0.6870 0.86061.0 1.0000 1.0000 0.5283 0.6339 0.83331.2 1.1583 1.0304 0.4124 0.5311 0.77641.4 1.2999 1.1149 0.3142 0.4374 0.71841.6 1.4254 1.2502 0.2353 0.3557 0.66141.8 1.5360 1.4390 0.1740 0.2868 0.60682.0 1.6330 1.6875 0.1278 0.2300 0.55562.2 1.7179 2.0050 0.0935 0.1841 0.50812.4 1.7922 2.4031 0.0684 0.1472 0.46472.6 1.8571 2.8960 0.0501 0.1179 0.42522.8 1.9140 3.5001 0.0368 0.0946 0.38943.0 1.9640 4.2346 0.0272 0.0760 0.35715.0 2.2361 25.000 0.0019 0.0113 0.1667� 2.2495 � 0 0 0

956 | Thermodynamics

T

T0� a1 �

k � 1

2 Ma2b�1

r

r0� a1 �

k � 1

2 Ma2b�1�(k�1)

P

P0� a1 �

k � 1

2 Ma2b�k�(k�1)

A

A*�

1

Maca 2

k � 1b a1 �

k � 1

2 Ma2bd 0.5(k�1)�(k�1)

Ma* � MaB k � 1

2 � (k � 1)Ma2

A/A*

Ma*

T/T0

r/r*

P/P0

2.5

3.0

2.0

1.5

Com

pres

sibl

e fl

ow f

unct

ions

1.0

0.5

0 0.5 1.0 1.5Ma

2.0 2.5 3.0

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Property Tables and Charts - [PDF Document] (49)

TABLE A–33

One-dimensional normal shock functions for an ideal gas with k � 1.4

Ma1 Ma2 P2/P1 r2/r1 T2/T1 P02/P01 P02/P1

1.0 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.89291.1 0.9118 1.2450 1.1691 1.0649 0.9989 2.13281.2 0.8422 1.5133 1.3416 1.1280 0.9928 2.40751.3 0.7860 1.8050 1.5157 1.1909 0.9794 2.71361.4 0.7397 2.1200 1.6897 1.2547 0.9582 3.04921.5 0.7011 2.4583 1.8621 1.3202 0.9298 3.41331.6 0.6684 2.8200 2.0317 1.3880 0.8952 3.80501.7 0.6405 3.2050 2.1977 1.4583 0.8557 4.22381.8 0.6165 3.6133 2.3592 1.5316 0.8127 4.66951.9 0.5956 4.0450 2.5157 1.6079 0.7674 5.14182.0 0.5774 4.5000 2.6667 1.6875 0.7209 5.64042.1 0.5613 4.9783 2.8119 1.7705 0.6742 6.16542.2 0.5471 5.4800 2.9512 1.8569 0.6281 6.71652.3 0.5344 6.0050 3.0845 1.9468 0.5833 7.29372.4 0.5231 6.5533 3.2119 2.0403 0.5401 7.89692.5 0.5130 7.1250 3.3333 2.1375 0.4990 8.52612.6 0.5039 7.7200 3.4490 2.2383 0.4601 9.18132.7 0.4956 8.3383 3.5590 2.3429 0.4236 9.86242.8 0.4882 8.9800 3.6636 2.4512 0.3895 10.56942.9 0.4814 9.6450 3.7629 2.5632 0.3577 11.30223.0 0.4752 10.3333 3.8571 2.6790 0.3283 12.06104.0 0.4350 18.5000 4.5714 4.0469 0.1388 21.06815.0 0.4152 29.000 5.0000 5.8000 0.0617 32.6335� 0.3780 � 6.0000 � 0 �

Appendix 1 | 957

P02

P1�

(1 � kMa21)[1 � Ma2

2(k � 1)�2]k�(k�1)

1 � kMa22

P02

P01�

Ma1

Ma2c1 � Ma2

2(k � 1)�2

1 � Ma21(k � 1)�2

d (k�1)/[2(k�1)]

T2

T1�

2 � Ma21(k � 1)

2 � Ma22(k � 1)

r2

r1�

P2�P1

T2�T1�

(k � 1)Ma21

2 � (k � 1)Ma21

�V1

V2

P2

P1�

1 � kMa21

1 � kMa22

�2kMa2

1 � k � 1

k � 1

Ma2 � B (k � 1)Ma21 � 2

2kMa21 � k � 1

T01 � T02

Ma2

T2/T1

r2/r1

P02/P1

P02/P01

P2/P1

3.0

4.0

5.0

2.0

Nor

mal

sho

ck f

unct

ions

1.0

1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5Ma1

3.0

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TABLE A–34

Rayleigh flow functions for an ideal gas with k � 1.4

Ma T0/T0* P0/P0* T/T* P/P* V/V*

0.0 0.0000 1.2679 0.0000 2.4000 0.00000.1 0.0468 1.2591 0.0560 2.3669 0.02370.2 0.1736 1.2346 0.2066 2.2727 0.09090.3 0.3469 1.1985 0.4089 2.1314 0.19180.4 0.5290 1.1566 0.6151 1.9608 0.31370.5 0.6914 1.1141 0.7901 1.7778 0.44440.6 0.8189 1.0753 0.9167 1.5957 0.57450.7 0.9085 1.0431 0.9929 1.4235 0.69750.8 0.9639 1.0193 1.0255 1.2658 0.81010.9 0.9921 1.0049 1.0245 1.1246 0.91101.0 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.00001.2 0.9787 1.0194 0.9118 0.7958 1.14591.4 0.9343 1.0777 0.8054 0.6410 1.25641.6 0.8842 1.1756 0.7017 0.5236 1.34031.8 0.8363 1.3159 0.6089 0.4335 1.40462.0 0.7934 1.5031 0.5289 0.3636 1.45452.2 0.7561 1.7434 0.4611 0.3086 1.49382.4 0.7242 2.0451 0.4038 0.2648 1.52522.6 0.6970 2.4177 0.3556 0.2294 1.55052.8 0.6738 2.8731 0.3149 0.2004 1.57113.0 0.6540 3.4245 0.2803 0.1765 1.5882

958 | Thermodynamics

V

V*�r*

r�

(1 � k)Ma2

1 � kMa2

P

P*�

1 � k

1 � kMa2

T

T*� aMa(1 � k)

1 � kMa2 b2

P0

P0*�

k � 1

1 � kMa2 a2 � (k � 1)Ma2

k � 1b k�(k�1)

T0

T0*�

(k � 1)Ma2[2 � (k � 1)Ma2]

(1 � kMa2)2

P0/P0

T0/T0

T/T*

P/P*

V/V*

3.5

3.0

2.5

1.5

2.0

Ray

leig

h fl

ow f

unct

ions

1.0

0.5

0 0.5 1.0 1.5Ma

2.0 2.5 3.0

*

*

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Appendix 2 PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (ENGLISH UNITS)

| 959

Table A–1E Molar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties

Table A–2E Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases

Table A–3E Properties of common liquids, solids,and foods

Table A–4E Saturated water—Temperature table

Table A–5E Saturated water—Pressure table

Table A–6E Superheated water

Table A–7E Compressed liquid water

Table A–8E Saturated ice–water vapor

Figure A–9E T-s diagram for water

Figure A–10E Mollier diagram for water

Table A–11E Saturated refrigerant-134a—Temperature table

Table A–12E Saturated refrigerant-134a—Pressuretable

Table A–13E Superheated refrigerant-134a

Figure A–14E P-h diagram for refrigerant-134a

Table A–16E Properties of the atmosphere at highaltitude

Table A–17E Ideal-gas properties of air

Table A–18E Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen, N2

Table A–19E Ideal-gas properties of oxygen, O2

Table A–20E Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide,CO2

Table A–21E Ideal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, CO

Table A–22E Ideal-gas properties of hydrogen, H2

Table A–23E Ideal-gas properties of water vapor,H2O

Table A–26E Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs functionof formation, and absolute entropy at77°C, 1 atm

Table A–27E Properties of some common fuels andhydrocarbons

Figure A–31E Psychrometric chart at 1 atm total pressure

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Property Tables and Charts - [PDF Document] (52)

TABLE A–1EMolar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties

MolarGas constant, R Critical-point properties

mass, M Btu/ psia · ft3/ Temperature, Pressure, Volume,Substance Formula lbm/lbmol lbm · R* lbm · R* R psia ft3/lbmol

Air — 28.97 0.06855 0.3704 238.5 547 1.41Ammonia NH3 17.03 0.1166 0.6301 729.8 1636 1.16Argon Ar 39.948 0.04971 0.2686 272 705 1.20Benzene C6H6 78.115 0.02542 0.1374 1012 714 4.17Bromine Br2 159.808 0.01243 0.06714 1052 1500 2.17n-Butane C4H10 58.124 0.03417 0.1846 765.2 551 4.08Carbon dioxide CO2 44.01 0.04513 0.2438 547.5 1071 1.51Carbon monoxide CO 28.011 0.07090 0.3831 240 507 1.49Carbon tetrachloride CCl4 153.82 0.01291 0.06976 1001.5 661 4.42Chlorine Cl2 70.906 0.02801 0.1517 751 1120 1.99Chloroform CHCl3 119.38 0.01664 0.08988 965.8 794 3.85Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) CCl2F2 120.91 0.01643 0.08874 692.4 582 3.49Dichlorofluoromethane (R-21) CHCl2F 102.92 0.01930 0.1043 813.0 749 3.16Ethane C2H6 30.020 0.06616 0.3574 549.8 708 2.37Ethyl alcohol C2H5OH 46.07 0.04311 0.2329 929.0 926 2.68Ethylene C2H4 28.054 0.07079 0.3825 508.3 742 1.99Helium He 4.003 0.4961 2.6809 9.5 33.2 0.926n-Hexane C6H14 86.178 0.02305 0.1245 914.2 439 5.89Hydrogen (normal) H2 2.016 0.9851 5.3224 59.9 188.1 1.04Krypton Kr 83.80 0.02370 0.1280 376.9 798 1.48Methane CH4 16.043 0.1238 0.6688 343.9 673 1.59Methyl alcohol CH3OH 32.042 0.06198 0.3349 923.7 1154 1.89Methyl chloride CH3Cl 50.488 0.03934 0.2125 749.3 968 2.29Neon Ne 20.183 0.09840 0.5316 80.1 395 0.668Nitrogen N2 28.013 0.07090 0.3830 227.1 492 1.44Nitrous oxide N2O 44.013 0.04512 0.2438 557.4 1054 1.54Oxygen O2 31.999 0.06206 0.3353 278.6 736 1.25Propane C3H8 44.097 0.04504 0.2433 665.9 617 3.20Propylene C3H6 42.081 0.04719 0.2550 656.9 670 2.90Sulfur dioxide SO2 64.063 0.03100 1.1675 775.2 1143 1.95Tetrafluoroethane (R-134a) CF3CH2F 102.03 0.01946 0.1052 673.6 588.7 3.19Trichlorofluoromethane (R-11) CCl3F 137.37 0.01446 0.07811 848.1 635 3.97Water H2O 18.015 0.1102 0.5956 1164.8 3200 0.90Xenon Xe 131.30 0.01513 0.08172 521.55 852 1.90

*Calculated from R � Ru /M, where Ru � 1.98588 Btu/lbmol · R � 10.7316 psia · ft3/lbmol · R and M is the molar mass.

Source: K. A. Kobe and R. E. Lynn, Jr., Chemical Review 52 (1953), pp. 117–236, and ASHRAE, Handbook of Fundamentals (Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1993), pp. 16.4 and 36.1.

960 | Thermodynamics

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TABLE A–2EIdeal-gas specific heats of various common gases(a) At 80°F

Gas constant, R cp cvGas Formula Btu/lbm · R Btu/lbm · R Btu/lbm · R k

Air — 0.06855 0.240 0.171 1.400Argon Ar 0.04971 0.1253 0.0756 1.667Butane C4H10 0.03424 0.415 0.381 1.09Carbon dioxide CO2 0.04513 0.203 0.158 1.285Carbon monoxide CO 0.07090 0.249 0.178 1.399Ethane C2H6 0.06616 0.427 0.361 1.183Ethylene C2H4 0.07079 0.411 0.340 1.208Helium He 0.4961 1.25 0.753 1.667Hydrogen H2 0.9851 3.43 2.44 1.404Methane CH4 0.1238 0.532 0.403 1.32Neon Ne 0.09840 0.246 0.1477 1.667Nitrogen N2 0.07090 0.248 0.177 1.400Octane C8H18 0.01742 0.409 0.392 1.044Oxygen O2 0.06206 0.219 0.157 1.395Propane C3H8 0.04504 0.407 0.362 1.124Steam H2O 0.1102 0.445 0.335 1.329

Source: Gordon J. Van Wylen and Richard E. Sonntag, Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics, English/SI Version, 3rd ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1986), p. 687, Table A–8E.

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TABLE A–2EIdeal-gas specific heats of various common gases (Continued)(b) At various temperatures

Temp., cp cv cp cv cp cv°F Btu/lbm · R Btu/lbm · R k Btu/lbm · R Btu/lbm · R k Btu/lbm · R Btu/lbm · R k

Air Carbon dioxide, C02 Carbon monoxide, CO

40 0.240 0.171 1.401 0.195 0.150 1.300 0.248 0.177 1.400100 0.240 0.172 1.400 0.205 0.160 1.283 0.249 0.178 1.399200 0.241 0.173 1.397 0.217 0.172 1.262 0.249 0.179 1.397300 0.243 0.174 1.394 0.229 0.184 1.246 0.251 0.180 1.394400 0.245 0.176 1.389 0.239 0.193 1.233 0.253 0.182 1.389500 0.248 0.179 1.383 0.247 0.202 1.223 0.256 0.185 1.384600 0.250 0.182 1.377 0.255 0.210 1.215 0.259 0.188 1.377700 0.254 0.185 1.371 0.262 0.217 1.208 0.262 0.191 1.371800 0.257 0.188 1.365 0.269 0.224 1.202 0.266 0.195 1.364900 0.259 0.191 1.358 0.275 0.230 1.197 0.269 0.198 1.357

1000 0.263 0.195 1.353 0.280 0.235 1.192 0.273 0.202 1.3511500 0.276 0.208 1.330 0.298 0.253 1.178 0.287 0.216 1.3282000 0.286 0.217 1.312 0.312 0.267 1.169 0.297 0.226 1.314

Hydrogen, H2 Nitrogen, N2 Oxygen, O2

40 3.397 2.412 1.409 0.248 0.177 1.400 0.219 0.156 1.397100 3.426 2.441 1.404 0.248 0.178 1.399 0.220 0.158 1.394200 3.451 2.466 1.399 0.249 0.178 1.398 0.223 0.161 1.387300 3.461 2.476 1.398 0.250 0.179 1.396 0.226 0.164 1.378400 3.466 2.480 1.397 0.251 0.180 1.393 0.230 0.168 1.368500 3.469 2.484 1.397 0.254 0.183 1.388 0.235 0.173 1.360600 3.473 2.488 1.396 0.256 0.185 1.383 0.239 0.177 1.352700 3.477 2.492 1.395 0.260 0.189 1.377 0.242 0.181 1.344800 3.494 2.509 1.393 0.262 0.191 1.371 0.246 0.184 1.337900 3.502 2.519 1.392 0.265 0.194 1.364 0.249 0.187 1.331

1000 3.513 2.528 1.390 0.269 0.198 1.359 0.252 0.190 1.3261500 3.618 2.633 1.374 0.283 0.212 1.334 0.263 0.201 1.3092000 3.758 2.773 1.355 0.293 0.222 1.319 0.270 0.208 1.298

Note: The unit Btu/lbm · R is equivalent to Btu/lbm · °F.

Source: Kenneth Wark, Thermodynamics, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983), p. 830, Table A–4. Originally published in Tables of Properties ofGases, NBS Circular 564, 1955.

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TABLE A–2EIdeal-gas specific heats of various common gases (Concluded )(c) As a function of temperature

(T in R, cp in Btu/lbmol · R)

Temperature % error

Substance Formula a b c d range, R Max. Avg.

Nitrogen N2 6.903 �0.02085 � 10�2 0.05957 � 10�5 �0.1176 � 10�9 491-3240 0.59 0.34Oxygen O2 6.085 0.2017 � 10�2 �0.05275 � 10�5 0.05372 � 10�9 491-3240 1.19 0.28Air — 6.713 0.02609 � 10�2 0.03540 � 10�5 �0.08052 � 10�9 491-3240 0.72 0.33Hydrogen H2 6.952 �0.02542 � 10�2 0.02952 � 10�5 �0.03565 � 10�9 491-3240 1.02 0.26Carbon monoxide CO 6.726 0.02222 � 10�2 0.03960 � 10�5 �0.09100 � 10�9 491-3240 0.89 0.37Carbon dioxide CO2 5.316 0.79361 � 10�2 �0.2581 � 10�5 0.3059 � 10�9 491-3240 0.67 0.22Water vapor H2O 7.700 0.02552 � 10�2 0.07781 � 10�5 �0.1472 � 10�9 491-3240 0.53 0.24Nitric oxide NO 7.008 �0.01247 � 10�2 0.07185 � 10�5 �0.1715 � 10�9 491-2700 0.97 0.36Nitrous oxide N2O 5.758 0.7780 � 10�2 �0.2596 � 10�5 0.4331 � 10�9 491-2700 0.59 0.26Nitrogen dioxide NO2 5.48 0.7583 � 10�2 �0.260 � 10�5 0.322 � 10�9 491-2700 0.46 0.18Ammonia NH3 6.5846 0.34028 � 10�2 0.073034 � 10�5 �0.27402 � 10�9 491-2700 0.91 0.36Sulfur S2 6.499 0.2943 � 10�2 �0.1200 � 10�5 0.1632 � 10�9 491-3240 0.99 0.38Sulfur dioxide SO2 6.157 0.7689 � 10�2 �0.2810 � 10�5 0.3527 � 10�9 491-3240 0.45 0.24Sulfur trioxide SO3 3.918 1.935 � 10�2 �0.8256 � 10�5 1.328 � 10�9 491-2340 0.29 0.13Acetylene C2H2 5.21 1.2227 � 10�2 �0.4812 � 10�5 0.7457 � 10�9 491-2700 1.46 0.59Benzene C6H6 �8.650 6.4322 � 10�2 �2.327 � 10�5 3.179 � 10�9 491-2700 0.34 0.20Methanol CH4O 4.55 1.214 � 10�2 �0.0898 � 10�5 �0.329 � 10�9 491-1800 0.18 0.08Ethanol C2H6O 4.75 2.781 � 10�2 �0.7651 � 10�5 0.821 � 10�9 491-2700 0.40 0.22Hydrogen chloride HCl 7.244 �0.1011 � 10�2 0.09783 � 10�5 �0.1776 � 10�9 491-2740 0.22 0.08Methane CH4 4.750 0.6666 � 10�2 0.09352 � 10�5 �0.4510 � 10�9 491-2740 1.33 0.57Ethane C2H6 1.648 2.291 � 10�2 �0.4722 � 10�5 0.2984 � 10�9 491-2740 0.83 0.28Propane C3H8 �0.966 4.044 � 10�2 �1.159 � 10�5 1.300 � 10�9 491-2740 0.40 0.12n-Butane C4H10 0.945 4.929 � 10�2 �1.352 � 10�5 1.433 � 10�9 491-2740 0.54 0.24i-Butane C4H10 �1.890 5.520 � 10�2 �1.696 � 10�5 2.044 � 10�9 491-2740 0.25 0.13n-Pentane C5H12 1.618 6.028 � 10�2 �1.656 � 10�5 1.732 � 10�9 491-2740 0.56 0.21n-Hexane C6H14 1.657 7.328 � 10�2 �2.112 � 10�5 2.363 � 10�9 491-2740 0.72 0.20Ethylene C2H4 0.944 2.075 � 10�2 �0.6151 � 10�5 0.7326 � 10�9 491-2740 0.54 0.13Propylene C3H6 0.753 3.162 � 10�2 �0.8981 � 10�5 1.008 � 10�9 491-2740 0.73 0.17

Source: Chemical and Process Thermodynamics 3/E by Kyle, B. G., © 2000. Adapted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.

c�p � a � bT � cT2 � dT3

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TABLE A–3EProperties of common liquids, solids, and foods(a) Liquids

Boiling data at 1 atm Freezing data Liquid properties

Normal Latent heat of Latent heat Specific boiling vaporization, Freezing of fusion, Temperature, Density, heat, cp

Substance point, °F hfg Btu/lbm point, °F hif Btu/lbm °F r lbm/ft3 Btu/lbm · R

Ammonia �27.9 24.54 �107.9 138.6 �27.9 42.6 1.060 41.3 1.083

40 39.5 1.10380 37.5 1.135

Argon �302.6 69.5 �308.7 12.0 �302.6 87.0 0.272Benzene 176.4 169.4 41.9 54.2 68 54.9 0.411Brine (20%

sodium chloride by mass) 219.0 — 0.7 — 68 71.8 0.743

n-Butane 31.1 165.6 �217.3 34.5 31.1 37.5 0.552Carbon dioxide �109.2* 99.6 (at 32°F) �69.8 — 32 57.8 0.583Ethanol 172.8 360.5 �173.6 46.9 77 48.9 0.588Ethyl alcohol 173.5 368 �248.8 46.4 68 49.3 0.678Ethylene glycol 388.6 344.0 12.6 77.9 68 69.2 0.678Glycerine 355.8 419 66.0 86.3 68 78.7 0.554Helium �452.1 9.80 — — �452.1 9.13 5.45Hydrogen �423.0 191.7 �434.5 25.6 �423.0 4.41 2.39Isobutane 10.9 157.8 �255.5 45.5 10.9 37.1 0.545Kerosene 399–559 108 �12.8 — 68 51.2 0.478Mercury 674.1 126.7 �38.0 4.90 77 847 0.033Methane �258.7 219.6 296.0 25.1 �258.7 26.4 0.834

�160 20.0 1.074Methanol 148.1 473 �143.9 42.7 77 49.1 0.609Nitrogen �320.4 85.4 �346.0 10.9 �320.4 50.5 0.492

�260 38.2 0.643Octane 256.6 131.7 �71.5 77.9 68 43.9 0.502Oil (light) — — 77 56.8 0.430Oxygen �297.3 91.5 �361.8 5.9 �297.3 71.2 0.408Petroleum — 99–165 68 40.0 0.478Propane �43.7 184.0 �305.8 34.4 �43.7 36.3 0.538

32 33.0 0.604100 29.4 0.673

Refrigerant-134a �15.0 93.3 �141.9 — �40 88.5 0.283�15 86.0 0.294

32 80.9 0.31890 73.6 0.348

Water 212 970.1 32 143.5 32 62.4 1.0190 62.1 1.00

150 61.2 1.00212 59.8 1.01

*Sublimation temperature. (At pressures below the triple-point pressure of 75.1 psia, carbon dioxide exists as a solid or gas. Also, the freezing-pointtemperature of carbon dioxide is the triple-point temperature of �69.8°F.)

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TABLE A–3EProperties of common liquids, solids, and foods (Continued)(b) Solids (values are for room temperature unless indicated otherwise)

Specific SpecificDensity, heat, cp Density, heat, cp

Substance r lbm/ft3 Btu/lbm · R Substance r lbm/ft3 Btu/lbm · R

Metals Nonmetals

Aluminum Asphalt 132 0.220�100°F 0.192 Brick, common 120 0.189

32°F 0.212 Brick, fireclay (500°C) 144 0.229100°F 170 0.218 Concrete 144 0.156200°F 0.224 Clay 62.4 0.220300°F 0.229 Diamond 151 0.147400°F 0.235 Glass, window 169 0.191500°F 0.240 Glass, pyrex 139 0.200

Bronze (76% Cu, 2% Zn, 517 0.0955 Graphite 156 0.1702% Al) Granite 169 0.243

Brass, yellow (65% Cu, 519 0.0955 Gypsum or plaster board 50 0.26035% Zn) Ice

Copper �50°F 0.424�60°F 0.0862 0°F 0.471

0°F 0.0893 20°F 0.491100°F 555 0.0925 32°F 57.5 0.502200°F 0.0938 Limestone 103 0.217390°F 0.0963 Marble 162 0.210

Iron 490 0.107 Plywood (Douglas fir) 34.0Lead 705 0.030 Rubber (soft) 68.7Magnesium 108 0.239 Rubber (hard) 71.8Nickel 555 0.105 Sand 94.9Silver 655 0.056 Stone 93.6Steel, mild 489 0.119 Woods, hard (maple, oak, etc.) 45.0Tungsten 1211 0.031 Woods, soft (fir, pine, etc.) 32.0

(c) Foods

Specific heat,Latent Water

Specific heat,Latent

Water FreezingBtu/lbm · R

heat of content, FreezingBtu/lbm · R

heat ofcontent, point, Above Below fusion, % point, Above Below fusion,

Food % (mass) °F freezing freezing Btu/lbm Food (mass) °F freezing freezing Btu/lbm

Apples 84 30 0.873 0.453 121 Lettuce 95 32 0.961 0.487 136Bananas 75 31 0.801 0.426 108 Milk, whole 88 31 0.905 0.465 126Beef round 67 — 0.737 0.402 96 Oranges 87 31 0.897 0.462 125Broccoli 90 31 0.921 0.471 129 Potatoes 78 31 0.825 0.435 112Butter 16 — — 0.249 23 Salmon fish 64 28 0.713 0.393 92Cheese, Swiss 39 14 0.513 0.318 56 Shrimp 83 28 0.865 0.450 119Cherries 80 29 0.841 0.441 115 Spinach 93 31 0.945 0.481 134Chicken 74 27 0.793 0.423 106 Strawberries 90 31 0.921 0.471 129Corn, sweet 74 31 0.793 0.423 106 Tomatoes, ripe 94 31 0.953 0.484 135Eggs, whole 74 31 0.793 0.423 106 Turkey 64 — 0.713 0.393 92Ice cream 63 22 0.705 0.390 90 Watermelon 93 31 0.945 0.481 134

Source: Values are obtained from various handbooks and other sources or are calculated. Water content and freezing-point data of foods are fromASHRAE, Handbook of Fundamentals, I-P version (Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1993),Chap. 30, Table 1. Freezing point is the temperature at which freezing starts for fruits and vegetables, and the average freezing temperature for otherfoods.

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TABLE A–4ESaturated water—Temperature table

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy,ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm · R

Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat.Temp., press., liquid, vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor,T °F Psat psia vf vg uf ufg ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg

32.018 0.08871 0.01602 3299.9 0.000 1021.0 1021.0 0.000 1075.2 1075.2 0.00000 2.18672 2.186735 0.09998 0.01602 2945.7 3.004 1019.0 1022.0 3.004 1073.5 1076.5 0.00609 2.17011 2.176240 0.12173 0.01602 2443.6 8.032 1015.6 1023.7 8.032 1070.7 1078.7 0.01620 2.14271 2.158945 0.14756 0.01602 2035.8 13.05 1012.2 1025.3 13.05 1067.8 1080.9 0.02620 2.11587 2.142150 0.17812 0.01602 1703.1 18.07 1008.9 1026.9 18.07 1065.0 1083.1 0.03609 2.08956 2.1256

55 0.21413 0.01603 1430.4 23.07 1005.5 1028.6 23.07 1062.2 1085.3 0.04586 2.06377 2.109660 0.25638 0.01604 1206.1 28.08 1002.1 1030.2 28.08 1059.4 1087.4 0.05554 2.03847 2.094065 0.30578 0.01604 1020.8 33.08 998.76 1031.8 33.08 1056.5 1089.6 0.06511 2.01366 2.078870 0.36334 0.01605 867.18 38.08 995.39 1033.5 38.08 1053.7 1091.8 0.07459 1.98931 2.063975 0.43016 0.01606 739.27 43.07 992.02 1035.1 43.07 1050.9 1093.9 0.08398 1.96541 2.0494

80 0.50745 0.01607 632.41 48.06 988.65 1036.7 48.07 1048.0 1096.1 0.09328 1.94196 2.035285 0.59659 0.01609 542.80 53.06 985.28 1038.3 53.06 1045.2 1098.3 0.10248 1.91892 2.021490 0.69904 0.01610 467.40 58.05 981.90 1040.0 58.05 1042.4 1100.4 0.11161 1.89630 2.007995 0.81643 0.01612 403.74 63.04 978.52 1041.6 63.04 1039.5 1102.6 0.12065 1.87408 1.9947

100 0.95052 0.01613 349.83 68.03 975.14 1043.2 68.03 1036.7 1104.7 0.12961 1.85225 1.9819

110 1.2767 0.01617 264.96 78.01 968.36 1046.4 78.02 1031.0 1109.0 0.14728 1.80970 1.9570120 1.6951 0.01620 202.94 88.00 961.56 1049.6 88.00 1025.2 1113.2 0.16466 1.76856 1.9332130 2.2260 0.01625 157.09 97.99 954.73 1052.7 97.99 1019.4 1117.4 0.18174 1.72877 1.9105140 2.8931 0.01629 122.81 107.98 947.87 1055.9 107.99 1013.6 1121.6 0.19855 1.69024 1.8888150 3.7234 0.01634 96.929 117.98 940.98 1059.0 117.99 1007.8 1125.7 0.21508 1.65291 1.8680

160 4.7474 0.01639 77.185 127.98 934.05 1062.0 128.00 1001.8 1129.8 0.23136 1.61670 1.8481170 5.9999 0.01645 61.982 138.00 927.08 1065.1 138.02 995.88 1133.9 0.24739 1.58155 1.8289180 7.5197 0.01651 50.172 148.02 920.06 1068.1 148.04 989.85 1137.9 0.26318 1.54741 1.8106190 9.3497 0.01657 40.920 158.05 912.99 1071.0 158.08 983.76 1141.8 0.27874 1.51421 1.7930200 11.538 0.01663 33.613 168.10 905.87 1074.0 168.13 977.60 1145.7 0.29409 1.48191 1.7760

210 14.136 0.01670 27.798 178.15 898.68 1076.8 178.20 971.35 1149.5 0.30922 1.45046 1.7597212 14.709 0.01671 26.782 180.16 897.24 1077.4 180.21 970.09 1150.3 0.31222 1.44427 1.7565220 17.201 0.01677 23.136 188.22 891.43 1079.6 188.28 965.02 1153.3 0.32414 1.41980 1.7439230 20.795 0.01684 19.374 198.31 884.10 1082.4 198.37 958.59 1157.0 0.33887 1.38989 1.7288240 24.985 0.01692 16.316 208.41 876.70 1085.1 208.49 952.06 1160.5 0.35342 1.36069 1.7141

250 29.844 0.01700 13.816 218.54 869.21 1087.7 218.63 945.41 1164.0 0.36779 1.33216 1.6999260 35.447 0.01708 11.760 228.68 861.62 1090.3 228.79 938.65 1167.4 0.38198 1.30425 1.6862270 41.877 0.01717 10.059 238.85 853.94 1092.8 238.98 931.76 1170.7 0.39601 1.27694 1.6730280 49.222 0.01726 8.6439 249.04 846.16 1095.2 249.20 924.74 1173.9 0.40989 1.25018 1.6601290 57.573 0.01735 7.4607 259.26 838.27 1097.5 259.45 917.57 1177.0 0.42361 1.22393 1.6475

300 67.028 0.01745 6.4663 269.51 830.25 1099.8 269.73 910.24 1180.0 0.43720 1.19818 1.6354310 77.691 0.01755 5.6266 279.79 822.11 1101.9 280.05 902.75 1182.8 0.45065 1.17289 1.6235320 89.667 0.01765 4.9144 290.11 813.84 1104.0 290.40 895.09 1185.5 0.46396 1.14802 1.6120330 103.07 0.01776 4.3076 300.46 805.43 1105.9 300.80 887.25 1188.1 0.47716 1.12355 1.6007340 118.02 0.01787 3.7885 310.85 796.87 1107.7 311.24 879.22 1190.5 0.49024 1.09945 1.5897

350 134.63 0.01799 3.3425 321.29 788.16 1109.4 321.73 870.98 1192.7 0.50321 1.07570 1.5789360 153.03 0.01811 2.9580 331.76 779.28 1111.0 332.28 862.53 1194.8 0.51607 1.05227 1.5683370 173.36 0.01823 2.6252 342.29 770.23 1112.5 342.88 853.86 1196.7 0.52884 1.02914 1.5580380 195.74 0.01836 2.3361 352.87 761.00 1113.9 353.53 844.96 1198.5 0.54152 1.00628 1.5478390 220.33 0.01850 2.0842 363.50 751.58 1115.1 364.25 835.81 1200.1 0.55411 0.98366 1.5378

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Appendix 2 | 967

TABLE A–4ESaturated water—Temperature table (Concluded)

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy,ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm · R

Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat.Temp., press., liquid, vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor,T °F Psat psia vf vg uf ufg ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg

400 247.26 0.01864 1.8639 374.19 741.97 1116.2 375.04 826.39 1201.4 0.56663 0.96127 1.5279410 276.69 0.01878 1.6706 384.94 732.14 1117.1 385.90 816.71 1202.6 0.57907 0.93908 1.5182420 308.76 0.01894 1.5006 395.76 722.08 1117.8 396.84 806.74 1203.6 0.59145 0.91707 1.5085430 343.64 0.01910 1.3505 406.65 711.80 1118.4 407.86 796.46 1204.3 0.60377 0.89522 1.4990440 381.49 0.01926 1.2178 417.61 701.26 1118.9 418.97 785.87 1204.8 0.61603 0.87349 1.4895

450 422.47 0.01944 1.0999 428.66 690.47 1119.1 430.18 774.94 1205.1 0.62826 0.85187 1.4801460 466.75 0.01962 0.99510 439.79 679.39 1119.2 441.48 763.65 1205.1 0.64044 0.83033 1.4708470 514.52 0.01981 0.90158 451.01 668.02 1119.0 452.90 751.98 1204.9 0.65260 0.80885 1.4615480 565.96 0.02001 0.81794 462.34 656.34 1118.7 464.43 739.91 1204.3 0.66474 0.78739 1.4521490 621.24 0.02022 0.74296 473.77 644.32 1118.1 476.09 727.40 1203.5 0.67686 0.76594 1.4428

500 680.56 0.02044 0.67558 485.32 631.94 1117.3 487.89 714.44 1202.3 0.68899 0.74445 1.4334510 744.11 0.02067 0.61489 496.99 619.17 1116.2 499.84 700.99 1200.8 0.70112 0.72290 1.4240520 812.11 0.02092 0.56009 508.80 605.99 1114.8 511.94 687.01 1199.0 0.71327 0.70126 1.4145530 884.74 0.02118 0.51051 520.76 592.35 1113.1 524.23 672.47 1196.7 0.72546 0.67947 1.4049540 962.24 0.02146 0.46553 532.88 578.23 1111.1 536.70 657.31 1194.0 0.73770 0.65751 1.3952

550 1044.8 0.02176 0.42465 545.18 563.58 1108.8 549.39 641.47 1190.9 0.75000 0.63532 1.3853560 1132.7 0.02207 0.38740 557.68 548.33 1106.0 562.31 624.91 1187.2 0.76238 0.61284 1.3752570 1226.2 0.02242 0.35339 570.40 532.45 1102.8 575.49 607.55 1183.0 0.77486 0.59003 1.3649580 1325.5 0.02279 0.32225 583.37 515.84 1099.2 588.95 589.29 1178.2 0.78748 0.56679 1.3543590 1430.8 0.02319 0.29367 596.61 498.43 1095.0 602.75 570.04 1172.8 0.80026 0.54306 1.3433

600 1542.5 0.02362 0.26737 610.18 480.10 1090.3 616.92 549.67 1166.6 0.81323 0.51871 1.3319610 1660.9 0.02411 0.24309 624.11 460.73 1084.8 631.52 528.03 1159.5 0.82645 0.49363 1.3201620 1786.2 0.02464 0.22061 638.47 440.14 1078.6 646.62 504.92 1151.5 0.83998 0.46765 1.3076630 1918.9 0.02524 0.19972 653.35 418.12 1071.5 662.32 480.07 1142.4 0.85389 0.44056 1.2944640 2059.3 0.02593 0.18019 668.86 394.36 1063.2 678.74 453.14 1131.9 0.86828 0.41206 1.2803

650 2207.8 0.02673 0.16184 685.16 368.44 1053.6 696.08 423.65 1119.7 0.88332 0.38177 1.2651660 2364.9 0.02767 0.14444 702.48 339.74 1042.2 714.59 390.84 1105.4 0.89922 0.34906 1.2483670 2531.2 0.02884 0.12774 721.23 307.22 1028.5 734.74 353.54 1088.3 0.91636 0.31296 1.2293680 2707.3 0.03035 0.11134 742.11 269.00 1011.1 757.32 309.57 1066.9 0.93541 0.27163 1.2070690 2894.1 0.03255 0.09451 766.81 220.77 987.6 784.24 253.96 1038.2 0.95797 0.22089 1.1789

700 3093.0 0.03670 0.07482 801.75 146.50 948.3 822.76 168.32 991.1 0.99023 0.14514 1.1354705.10 3200.1 0.04975 0.04975 866.61 0 866.6 896.07 0 896.1 1.05257 0 1.0526

Source: Tables A–4E through A–8E are generated using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. The routine used in calculations is the highly accurate Steam_IAPWS, which incorporates the 1995 Formulation for the Thermodynamic Properties of OrdinaryWater Substance for General and Scientific Use, issued by The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS). This formulationreplaces the 1984 formulation of Haar, Gallagher, and Kell (NBS/NRC Steam Tables, Hemisphere Publishing Co., 1984), which is also available in EESas the routine STEAM. The new formulation is based on the correlations of Saul and Wagner (J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 16, 893, 1987) with modifica-tions to adjust to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. The modifications are described by Wagner and Pruss (J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 22,783, 1993). The properties of ice are based on Hyland and Wexler, “Formulations for the Thermodynamic Properties of the Saturated Phases of H2Ofrom 173.15 K to 473.15 K,” ASHRAE Trans., Part 2A, Paper 2793, 1983.

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TABLE A–5ESaturated water—Pressure table

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy,ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm · R

Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat.Press., temp., liquid, vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor,P psia Tsat °F vf vg uf ufg ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg

1 101.69 0.01614 333.49 69.72 973.99 1043.7 69.72 1035.7 1105.4 0.13262 1.84495 1.97762 126.02 0.01623 173.71 94.02 957.45 1051.5 94.02 1021.7 1115.8 0.17499 1.74444 1.91943 141.41 0.01630 118.70 109.39 946.90 1056.3 109.40 1012.8 1122.2 0.20090 1.68489 1.88584 152.91 0.01636 90.629 120.89 938.97 1059.9 120.90 1006.0 1126.9 0.21985 1.64225 1.86215 162.18 0.01641 73.525 130.17 932.53 1062.7 130.18 1000.5 1130.7 0.23488 1.60894 1.8438

6 170.00 0.01645 61.982 138.00 927.08 1065.1 138.02 995.88 1133.9 0.24739 1.58155 1.82898 182.81 0.01652 47.347 150.83 918.08 1068.9 150.86 988.15 1139.0 0.26757 1.53800 1.8056

10 193.16 0.01659 38.425 161.22 910.75 1072.0 161.25 981.82 1143.1 0.28362 1.50391 1.787514.696 211.95 0.01671 26.805 180.12 897.27 1077.4 180.16 970.12 1150.3 0.31215 1.44441 1.756615 212.99 0.01672 26.297 181.16 896.52 1077.7 181.21 969.47 1150.7 0.31370 1.44441 1.7549

20 227.92 0.01683 20.093 196.21 885.63 1081.8 196.27 959.93 1156.2 0.33582 1.39606 1.731925 240.03 0.01692 16.307 208.45 876.67 1085.1 208.52 952.03 1160.6 0.35347 1.36060 1.714130 250.30 0.01700 13.749 218.84 868.98 1087.8 218.93 945.21 1164.1 0.36821 1.33132 1.699535 259.25 0.01708 11.901 227.92 862.19 1090.1 228.03 939.16 1167.2 0.38093 1.30632 1.687240 267.22 0.01715 10.501 236.02 856.09 1092.1 236.14 933.69 1169.8 0.39213 1.28448 1.6766

45 274.41 0.01721 9.4028 243.34 850.52 1093.9 243.49 928.68 1172.2 0.40216 1.26506 1.667250 280.99 0.01727 8.5175 250.05 845.39 1095.4 250.21 924.03 1174.2 0.41125 1.24756 1.658855 287.05 0.01732 7.7882 256.25 840.61 1096.9 256.42 919.70 1176.1 0.41958 1.23162 1.651260 292.69 0.01738 7.1766 262.01 836.13 1098.1 262.20 915.61 1177.8 0.42728 1.21697 1.644265 297.95 0.01743 6.6560 267.41 831.90 1099.3 267.62 911.75 1179.4 0.43443 1.20341 1.6378

70 302.91 0.01748 6.2075 272.50 827.90 1100.4 272.72 908.08 1180.8 0.44112 1.19078 1.631975 307.59 0.01752 5.8167 277.31 824.09 1101.4 277.55 904.58 1182.1 0.44741 1.17895 1.626480 312.02 0.01757 5.4733 281.87 820.45 1102.3 282.13 901.22 1183.4 0.45335 1.16783 1.621285 316.24 0.01761 5.1689 286.22 816.97 1103.2 286.50 898.00 1184.5 0.45897 1.15732 1.616390 320.26 0.01765 4.8972 290.38 813.62 1104.0 290.67 894.89 1185.6 0.46431 1.14737 1.6117

95 324.11 0.01770 4.6532 294.36 810.40 1104.8 294.67 891.89 1186.6 0.46941 1.13791 1.6073100 327.81 0.01774 4.4327 298.19 807.29 1105.5 298.51 888.99 1187.5 0.47427 1.12888 1.6032110 334.77 0.01781 4.0410 305.41 801.37 1106.8 305.78 883.44 1189.2 0.48341 1.11201 1.5954120 341.25 0.01789 3.7289 312.16 795.79 1107.9 312.55 878.20 1190.8 0.49187 1.09646 1.5883130 347.32 0.01796 3.4557 318.48 790.51 1109.0 318.92 873.21 1192.1 0.49974 1.08204 1.5818

140 353.03 0.01802 3.2202 324.45 785.49 1109.9 324.92 868.45 1193.4 0.50711 1.06858 1.5757150 358.42 0.01809 3.0150 330.11 780.69 1110.8 330.61 863.88 1194.5 0.51405 1.05595 1.5700160 363.54 0.01815 2.8347 335.49 776.10 1111.6 336.02 859.49 1195.5 0.52061 1.04405 1.5647170 368.41 0.01821 2.6749 340.62 771.68 1112.3 341.19 855.25 1196.4 0.52682 1.03279 1.5596180 373.07 0.01827 2.5322 345.53 767.42 1113.0 346.14 851.16 1197.3 0.53274 1.02210 1.5548

190 377.52 0.01833 2.4040 350.24 763.31 1113.6 350.89 847.19 1198.1 0.53839 1.01191 1.5503200 381.80 0.01839 2.2882 354.78 759.32 1114.1 355.46 843.33 1198.8 0.54379 1.00219 1.5460250 400.97 0.01865 1.8440 375.23 741.02 1116.3 376.09 825.47 1201.6 0.56784 0.95912 1.5270300 417.35 0.01890 1.5435 392.89 724.77 1117.7 393.94 809.41 1203.3 0.58818 0.92289 1.5111350 431.74 0.01912 1.3263 408.55 709.98 1118.5 409.79 794.65 1204.4 0.60590 0.89143 1.4973

400 444.62 0.01934 1.1617 422.70 696.31 1119.0 424.13 780.87 1205.0 0.62168 0.86350 1.4852450 456.31 0.01955 1.0324 435.67 683.52 1119.2 437.30 767.86 1205.2 0.63595 0.83828 1.4742500 467.04 0.01975 0.92819 447.68 671.42 1119.1 449.51 755.48 1205.0 0.64900 0.81521 1.4642550 476.97 0.01995 0.84228 458.90 659.91 1118.8 460.93 743.60 1204.5 0.66107 0.79388 1.4550600 486.24 0.02014 0.77020 469.46 648.88 1118.3 471.70 732.15 1203.9 0.67231 0.77400 1.4463

968 | Thermodynamics

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Appendix 2 | 969

TABLE A–5ESaturated water—Pressure table (Concluded)

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy,ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm · R

Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat.Press., temp., liquid, vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor,P psia Tsat °F vf vg uf ufg ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg

700 503.13 0.02051 0.65589 488.96 627.98 1116.9 491.62 710.29 1201.9 0.69279 0.73771 1.4305800 518.27 0.02087 0.56920 506.74 608.30 1115.0 509.83 689.48 1199.3 0.71117 0.70502 1.4162900 532.02 0.02124 0.50107 523.19 589.54 1112.7 526.73 669.46 1196.2 0.72793 0.67505 1.4030

1000 544.65 0.02159 0.44604 538.58 571.49 1110.1 542.57 650.03 1192.6 0.74341 0.64722 1.39061200 567.26 0.02232 0.36241 566.89 536.87 1103.8 571.85 612.39 1184.2 0.77143 0.59632 1.3677

1400 587.14 0.02307 0.30161 592.79 503.50 1096.3 598.76 575.66 1174.4 0.79658 0.54991 1.34651600 604.93 0.02386 0.25516 616.99 470.69 1087.7 624.06 539.18 1163.2 0.81972 0.50645 1.32621800 621.07 0.02470 0.21831 640.03 437.86 1077.9 648.26 502.35 1150.6 0.84144 0.46482 1.30632000 635.85 0.02563 0.18815 662.33 404.46 1066.8 671.82 464.60 1136.4 0.86224 0.42409 1.28632500 668.17 0.02860 0.13076 717.67 313.53 1031.2 730.90 360.79 1091.7 0.91311 0.31988 1.2330

3000 695.41 0.03433 0.08460 783.39 186.41 969.8 802.45 214.32 1016.8 0.97321 0.18554 1.15873200.1 705.10 0.04975 0.04975 866.61 0 866.6 896.07 0 896.1 1.05257 0 1.0526

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TABLE A–6ESuperheated water

s s sT v u h Btu/ v u h Btu/ v u h Btu/°F ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm · R ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm · R ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm · R

P � 1.0 psia (101.69°F)* P � 5.0 psia (162.18°F) P � 10 psia (193.16°F)

Sat.† 333.49 1043.7 1105.4 1.9776 73.525 1062.7 1130.7 1.8438 38.425 1072.0 1143.1 1.7875200 392.53 1077.5 1150.1 2.0509 78.153 1076.2 1148.5 1.8716 38.849 1074.5 1146.4 1.7926240 416.44 1091.2 1168.3 2.0777 83.009 1090.3 1167.1 1.8989 41.326 1089.1 1165.5 1.8207280 440.33 1105.0 1186.5 2.1030 87.838 1104.3 1185.6 1.9246 43.774 1103.4 1184.4 1.8469320 464.20 1118.9 1204.8 2.1271 92.650 1118.4 1204.1 1.9490 46.205 1117.6 1203.1 1.8716360 488.07 1132.9 1223.3 2.1502 97.452 1132.5 1222.6 1.9722 48.624 1131.9 1221.8 1.8950400 511.92 1147.1 1241.8 2.1722 102.25 1146.7 1241.3 1.9944 51.035 1146.2 1240.6 1.9174440 535.77 1161.3 1260.4 2.1934 107.03 1160.9 1260.0 2.0156 53.441 1160.5 1259.4 1.9388500 571.54 1182.8 1288.6 2.2237 114.21 1182.6 1288.2 2.0461 57.041 1182.2 1287.8 1.9693600 631.14 1219.4 1336.2 2.2709 126.15 1219.2 1335.9 2.0933 63.029 1219.0 1335.6 2.0167700 690.73 1256.8 1384.6 2.3146 138.09 1256.7 1384.4 2.1371 69.007 1256.5 1384.2 2.0605800 750.31 1295.1 1433.9 2.3553 150.02 1294.9 1433.7 2.1778 74.980 1294.8 1433.5 2.1013

1000 869.47 1374.2 1535.1 2.4299 173.86 1374.2 1535.0 2.2524 86.913 1374.1 1534.9 2.17601200 988.62 1457.1 1640.0 2.4972 197.70 1457.0 1640.0 2.3198 98.840 1457.0 1639.9 2.24331400 1107.8 1543.7 1748.7 2.5590 221.54 1543.7 1748.7 2.3816 110.762 1543.6 1748.6 2.3052

P � 15 psia (212.99°F) P � 20 psia (227.92°F) P � 40 psia (267.22°F)

Sat. 26.297 1077.7 1150.7 1.7549 20.093 1081.8 1156.2 1.7319 10.501 1092.1 1169.8 1.6766240 27.429 1087.8 1163.9 1.7742 20.478 1086.5 1162.3 1.7406280 29.085 1102.4 1183.2 1.8010 21.739 1101.4 1181.9 1.7679 10.713 1097.3 1176.6 1.6858320 30.722 1116.9 1202.2 1.8260 22.980 1116.1 1201.2 1.7933 11.363 1112.9 1197.1 1.7128360 32.348 1131.3 1221.1 1.8496 24.209 1130.7 1220.2 1.8171 11.999 1128.1 1216.9 1.7376400 33.965 1145.7 1239.9 1.8721 25.429 1145.1 1239.3 1.8398 12.625 1143.1 1236.5 1.7610440 35.576 1160.1 1258.8 1.8936 26.644 1159.7 1258.3 1.8614 13.244 1157.9 1256.0 1.7831500 37.986 1181.9 1287.3 1.9243 28.458 1181.6 1286.9 1.8922 14.165 1180.2 1285.0 1.8143600 41.988 1218.7 1335.3 1.9718 31.467 1218.5 1334.9 1.9398 15.686 1217.5 1333.6 1.8625700 45.981 1256.3 1383.9 2.0156 34.467 1256.1 1383.7 1.9837 17.197 1255.3 1382.6 1.9067800 49.967 1294.6 1433.3 2.0565 37.461 1294.5 1433.1 2.0247 18.702 1293.9 1432.3 1.9478

1000 57.930 1374.0 1534.8 2.1312 43.438 1373.8 1534.6 2.0994 21.700 1373.4 1534.1 2.02271200 65.885 1456.9 1639.8 2.1986 49.407 1456.8 1639.7 2.1668 24.691 1456.5 1639.3 2.09021400 73.836 1543.6 1748.5 2.2604 55.373 1543.5 1748.4 2.2287 27.678 1543.3 1748.1 2.15221600 81.784 1634.0 1861.0 2.3178 61.335 1633.9 1860.9 2.2861 30.662 1633.7 1860.7 2.2096

P � 60 psia (292.69°F) P � 80 psia (312.02°F) P � 100 psia (327.81°F)

Sat. 7.1766 1098.1 1177.8 1.6442 5.4733 1102.3 1183.4 1.6212 4.4327 1105.5 1187.5 1.6032320 7.4863 1109.6 1192.7 1.6636 5.5440 1105.9 1187.9 1.6271360 7.9259 1125.5 1213.5 1.6897 5.8876 1122.7 1209.9 1.6545 4.6628 1119.8 1206.1 1.6263400 8.3548 1140.9 1233.7 1.7138 6.2187 1138.7 1230.8 1.6794 4.9359 1136.4 1227.8 1.6521440 8.7766 1156.1 1253.6 1.7364 6.5420 1154.3 1251.2 1.7026 5.2006 1152.4 1248.7 1.6759500 9.4005 1178.8 1283.1 1.7682 7.0177 1177.3 1281.2 1.7350 5.5876 1175.9 1279.3 1.7088600 10.4256 1216.5 1332.2 1.8168 7.7951 1215.4 1330.8 1.7841 6.2167 1214.4 1329.4 1.7586700 11.4401 1254.5 1381.6 1.8613 8.5616 1253.8 1380.5 1.8289 6.8344 1253.0 1379.5 1.8037800 12.4484 1293.3 1431.5 1.9026 9.3218 1292.6 1430.6 1.8704 7.4457 1292.0 1429.8 1.8453

1000 14.4543 1373.0 1533.5 1.9777 10.8313 1372.6 1532.9 1.9457 8.6575 1372.2 1532.4 1.92081200 16.4525 1456.2 1638.9 2.0454 12.3331 1455.9 1638.5 2.0135 9.8615 1455.6 1638.1 1.98871400 18.4464 1543.0 1747.8 2.1073 13.8306 1542.8 1747.5 2.0755 11.0612 1542.6 1747.2 2.05081600 20.438 1633.5 1860.5 2.1648 15.3257 1633.3 1860.2 2.1330 12.2584 1633.2 1860.0 2.10831800 22.428 1727.6 1976.6 2.2187 16.8192 1727.5 1976.5 2.1869 13.4541 1727.3 1976.3 2.16222000 24.417 1825.2 2096.3 2.2694 18.3117 1825.0 2096.1 2.2376 14.6487 1824.9 2096.0 2.2130

*The temperature in parentheses is the saturation temperature at the specified pressure.† Properties of saturated vapor at the specified pressure.

970 | Thermodynamics

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Appendix 2 | 971

TABLE A–6ESuperheated water (Continued )

s s sT v u h Btu/ v u h Btu/ v u h Btu/°F ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm · R ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm · R ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm · R

P � 120 psia (341.25°F) P � 140 psia (353.03°F) P � 160 psia (363.54°F)

Sat. 3.7289 1107.9 1190.8 1.5883 3.2202 1109.9 1193.4 1.5757 2.8347 1111.6 1195.5 1.5647360 3.8446 1116.7 1202.1 1.6023 3.2584 1113.4 1197.8 1.5811400 4.0799 1134.0 1224.6 1.6292 3.4676 1131.5 1221.4 1.6092 3.0076 1129.0 1218.0 1.5914450 4.3613 1154.5 1251.4 1.6594 3.7147 1152.6 1248.9 1.6403 3.2293 1150.7 1246.3 1.6234500 4.6340 1174.4 1277.3 1.6872 3.9525 1172.9 1275.3 1.6686 3.4412 1171.4 1273.2 1.6522550 4.9010 1193.9 1302.8 1.7131 4.1845 1192.7 1301.1 1.6948 3.6469 1191.4 1299.4 1.6788600 5.1642 1213.4 1328.0 1.7375 4.4124 1212.3 1326.6 1.7195 3.8484 1211.3 1325.2 1.7037700 5.6829 1252.2 1378.4 1.7829 4.8604 1251.4 1377.3 1.7652 4.2434 1250.6 1376.3 1.7498800 6.1950 1291.4 1429.0 1.8247 5.3017 1290.8 1428.1 1.8072 4.6316 1290.2 1427.3 1.7920

1000 7.2083 1371.7 1531.8 1.9005 6.1732 1371.3 1531.3 1.8832 5.3968 1370.9 1530.7 1.86821200 8.2137 1455.3 1637.7 1.9684 7.0367 1455.0 1637.3 1.9512 6.1540 1454.7 1636.9 1.93631400 9.2149 1542.3 1746.9 2.0305 7.8961 1542.1 1746.6 2.0134 6.9070 1541.8 1746.3 1.99861600 10.2135 1633.0 1859.8 2.0881 8.7529 1632.8 1859.5 2.0711 7.6574 1632.6 1859.3 2.05631800 11.2106 1727.2 1976.1 2.1420 9.6082 1727.0 1975.9 2.1250 8.4063 1726.9 1975.7 2.11022000 12.2067 1824.8 2095.8 2.1928 10.4624 1824.6 2095.7 2.1758 9.1542 1824.5 2095.5 2.1610

P � 180 psia (373.07°F) P � 200 psia (381.80°F) P � 225 psia (391.80°F)

Sat. 2.5322 1113.0 1197.3 1.5548 2.2882 1114.1 1198.8 1.5460 2.0423 1115.3 1200.3 1.5360400 2.6490 1126.3 1214.5 1.5752 2.3615 1123.5 1210.9 1.5602 2.0728 1119.7 1206.0 1.5427450 2.8514 1148.7 1243.7 1.6082 2.5488 1146.7 1241.0 1.5943 2.2457 1144.1 1237.6 1.5783500 3.0433 1169.8 1271.2 1.6376 2.7247 1168.2 1269.0 1.6243 2.4059 1166.2 1266.3 1.6091550 3.2286 1190.2 1297.7 1.6646 2.8939 1188.9 1296.0 1.6516 2.5590 1187.2 1293.8 1.6370600 3.4097 1210.2 1323.8 1.6897 3.0586 1209.1 1322.3 1.6771 2.7075 1207.7 1320.5 1.6628700 3.7635 1249.8 1375.2 1.7361 3.3796 1249.0 1374.1 1.7238 2.9956 1248.0 1372.7 1.7099800 4.1104 1289.5 1426.5 1.7785 3.6934 1288.9 1425.6 1.7664 3.2765 1288.1 1424.5 1.7528900 4.4531 1329.7 1478.0 1.8179 4.0031 1329.2 1477.3 1.8059 3.5530 1328.5 1476.5 1.7925

1000 4.7929 1370.5 1530.1 1.8549 4.3099 1370.1 1529.6 1.8430 3.8268 1369.5 1528.9 1.82961200 5.4674 1454.3 1636.5 1.9231 4.9182 1454.0 1636.1 1.9113 4.3689 1453.6 1635.6 1.89811400 6.1377 1541.6 1746.0 1.9855 5.5222 1541.4 1745.7 1.9737 4.9068 1541.1 1745.4 1.96061600 6.8054 1632.4 1859.1 2.0432 6.1238 1632.2 1858.8 2.0315 5.4422 1632.0 1858.6 2.01841800 7.4716 1726.7 1975.6 2.0971 6.7238 1726.5 1975.4 2.0855 5.9760 1726.4 1975.2 2.07242000 8.1367 1824.4 2095.4 2.1479 7.3227 1824.3 2095.3 2.1363 6.5087 1824.1 2095.1 2.1232

P � 250 psia (400.97°F) P � 275 psia (409.45°F) P � 300 psia (417.35°F)

Sat. 1.8440 1116.3 1201.6 1.5270 1.6806 1117.0 1202.6 1.5187 1.5435 1117.7 1203.3 1.5111450 2.0027 1141.3 1234.0 1.5636 1.8034 1138.5 1230.3 1.5499 1.6369 1135.6 1226.4 1.5369500 2.1506 1164.1 1263.6 1.5953 1.9415 1162.0 1260.8 1.5825 1.7670 1159.8 1257.9 1.5706550 2.2910 1185.6 1291.5 1.6237 2.0715 1183.9 1289.3 1.6115 1.8885 1182.1 1287.0 1.6001600 2.4264 1206.3 1318.6 1.6499 2.1964 1204.9 1316.7 1.6380 2.0046 1203.5 1314.8 1.6270650 2.5586 1226.8 1345.1 1.6743 2.3179 1225.6 1343.5 1.6627 2.1172 1224.4 1341.9 1.6520700 2.6883 1247.0 1371.4 1.6974 2.4369 1246.0 1370.0 1.6860 2.2273 1244.9 1368.6 1.6755800 2.9429 1287.3 1423.5 1.7406 2.6699 1286.5 1422.4 1.7294 2.4424 1285.7 1421.3 1.7192900 3.1930 1327.9 1475.6 1.7804 2.8984 1327.3 1474.8 1.7694 2.6529 1326.6 1473.9 1.7593

1000 3.4403 1369.0 1528.2 1.8177 3.1241 1368.5 1527.4 1.8068 2.8605 1367.9 1526.7 1.79681200 3.9295 1453.3 1635.0 1.8863 3.5700 1452.9 1634.5 1.8755 3.2704 1452.5 1634.0 1.86571400 4.4144 1540.8 1745.0 1.9488 4.0116 1540.5 1744.6 1.9381 3.6759 1540.2 1744.2 1.92841600 4.8969 1631.7 1858.3 2.0066 4.4507 1631.5 1858.0 1.9960 4.0789 1631.3 1857.7 1.98631800 5.3777 1726.2 1974.9 2.0607 4.8882 1726.0 1974.7 2.0501 4.4803 1725.8 1974.5 2.04042000 5.8575 1823.9 2094.9 2.1116 5.3247 1823.8 2094.7 2.1010 4.8807 1823.6 2094.6 2.0913

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TABLE A–6ESuperheated water (Continued )

s s sT v u h Btu/ v u h Btu/ v u h Btu/°F ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm · R ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm · R ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm · R

P � 350 psia (431.74°F) P � 400 psia (444.62°F) P � 450 psia (456.31°F)

Sat. 1.3263 1118.5 1204.4 1.4973 1.1617 1119.0 1205.0 1.4852 1.0324 1119.2 1205.2 1.4742450 1.3739 1129.3 1218.3 1.5128 1.1747 1122.5 1209.4 1.4901500 1.4921 1155.2 1251.9 1.5487 1.2851 1150.4 1245.6 1.5288 1.1233 1145.4 1238.9 1.5103550 1.6004 1178.6 1282.2 1.5795 1.3840 1174.9 1277.3 1.5610 1.2152 1171.1 1272.3 1.5441600 1.7030 1200.6 1310.9 1.6073 1.4765 1197.6 1306.9 1.5897 1.3001 1194.6 1302.8 1.5737650 1.8018 1221.9 1338.6 1.6328 1.5650 1219.4 1335.3 1.6158 1.3807 1216.9 1331.9 1.6005700 1.8979 1242.8 1365.8 1.6567 1.6507 1240.7 1362.9 1.6401 1.4584 1238.5 1360.0 1.6253800 2.0848 1284.1 1419.1 1.7009 1.8166 1282.5 1417.0 1.6849 1.6080 1280.8 1414.7 1.6706900 2.2671 1325.3 1472.2 1.7414 1.9777 1324.0 1470.4 1.7257 1.7526 1322.7 1468.6 1.7117

1000 2.4464 1366.9 1525.3 1.7791 2.1358 1365.8 1523.9 1.7636 1.8942 1364.7 1522.4 1.74991200 2.7996 1451.7 1633.0 1.8483 2.4465 1450.9 1632.0 1.8331 2.1718 1450.1 1631.0 1.81961400 3.1484 1539.6 1743.5 1.9111 2.7527 1539.0 1742.7 1.8960 2.4450 1538.4 1742.0 1.88271600 3.4947 1630.8 1857.1 1.9691 3.0565 1630.3 1856.5 1.9541 2.7157 1629.8 1856.0 1.94091800 3.8394 1725.4 1974.0 2.0233 3.3586 1725.0 1973.6 2.0084 2.9847 1724.6 1973.2 1.99522000 4.1830 1823.3 2094.2 2.0742 3.6597 1823.0 2093.9 2.0594 3.2527 1822.6 2093.5 2.0462

P � 500 psia (467.04°F) P � 600 psia (486.24°F) P � 700 psia (503.13°F)

Sat. 0.92815 1119.1 1205.0 1.4642 0.77020 1118.3 1203.9 1.4463 0.65589 1116.9 1201.9 1.4305500 0.99304 1140.1 1231.9 1.4928 0.79526 1128.2 1216.5 1.4596550 1.07974 1167.1 1267.0 1.5284 0.87542 1158.7 1255.9 1.4996 0.72799 1149.5 1243.8 1.4730600 1.15876 1191.4 1298.6 1.5590 0.94605 1184.9 1289.9 1.5325 0.79332 1177.9 1280.7 1.5087650 1.23312 1214.3 1328.4 1.5865 1.01133 1209.0 1321.3 1.5614 0.85242 1203.4 1313.8 1.5393700 1.30440 1236.4 1357.0 1.6117 1.07316 1231.9 1351.0 1.5877 0.90769 1227.2 1344.8 1.5666800 1.44097 1279.2 1412.5 1.6576 1.19038 1275.8 1408.0 1.6348 1.01125 1272.4 1403.4 1.6150900 1.57252 1321.4 1466.9 1.6992 1.30230 1318.7 1463.3 1.6771 1.10921 1316.0 1459.7 1.6581

1000 1.70094 1363.6 1521.0 1.7376 1.41097 1361.4 1518.1 1.7160 1.20381 1359.2 1515.2 1.69741100 1.82726 1406.2 1575.3 1.7735 1.51749 1404.4 1572.9 1.7522 1.29621 1402.5 1570.4 1.73411200 1.95211 1449.4 1630.0 1.8075 1.62252 1447.8 1627.9 1.7865 1.38709 1446.2 1625.9 1.76851400 2.1988 1537.8 1741.2 1.8708 1.82957 1536.6 1739.7 1.8501 1.56580 1535.4 1738.2 1.83241600 2.4430 1629.4 1855.4 1.9291 2.0340 1628.4 1854.2 1.9085 1.74192 1627.5 1853.1 1.89111800 2.6856 1724.2 1972.7 1.9834 2.2369 1723.4 1971.8 1.9630 1.91643 1722.7 1970.9 1.94572000 2.9271 1822.3 2093.1 2.0345 2.4387 1821.7 2092.4 2.0141 2.08987 1821.0 2091.7 1.9969

P � 800 psia (518.27°F) P � 1000 psia (544.65°F) P � 1250 psia (572.45°F)

Sat. 0.56920 1115.0 1199.3 1.4162 0.44604 1110.1 1192.6 1.3906 0.34549 1102.0 1181.9 1.3623550 0.61586 1139.4 1230.5 1.4476 0.45375 1115.2 1199.2 1.3972600 0.67799 1170.5 1270.9 1.4866 0.51431 1154.1 1249.3 1.4457 0.37894 1129.5 1217.2 1.3961650 0.73279 1197.6 1306.0 1.5191 0.56411 1185.1 1289.5 1.4827 0.42703 1167.5 1266.3 1.4414700 0.78330 1222.4 1338.4 1.5476 0.60844 1212.4 1325.0 1.5140 0.46735 1198.7 1306.8 1.4771750 0.83102 1246.0 1369.1 1.5735 0.64944 1237.6 1357.8 1.5418 0.50344 1226.4 1342.9 1.5076800 0.87678 1268.9 1398.7 1.5975 0.68821 1261.7 1389.0 1.5670 0.53687 1252.2 1376.4 1.5347900 0.96434 1313.3 1456.0 1.6413 0.76136 1307.7 1448.6 1.6126 0.59876 1300.5 1439.0 1.5826

1000 1.04841 1357.0 1512.2 1.6812 0.83078 1352.5 1506.2 1.6535 0.65656 1346.7 1498.6 1.62491100 1.13024 1400.7 1568.0 1.7181 0.89783 1396.9 1563.1 1.6911 0.71184 1392.2 1556.8 1.66351200 1.21051 1444.6 1623.8 1.7528 0.96327 1441.4 1619.7 1.7263 0.76545 1437.4 1614.5 1.69931400 1.36797 1534.2 1736.7 1.8170 1.09101 1531.8 1733.7 1.7911 0.86944 1528.7 1729.8 1.76491600 1.52283 1626.5 1851.9 1.8759 1.21610 1624.6 1849.6 1.8504 0.97072 1622.2 1846.7 1.82461800 1.67606 1721.9 1970.0 1.9306 1.33956 1720.3 1968.2 1.9053 1.07036 1718.4 1966.0 1.87992000 1.82823 1820.4 2091.0 1.9819 1.46194 1819.1 2089.6 1.9568 1.16892 1817.5 2087.9 1.9315

972 | Thermodynamics

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Appendix 2 | 973

TABLE A–6ESuperheated water (Concluded)

s s sT v u h Btu/ v u h Btu/ v u h Btu/°F ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm ·R ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm ·R ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm ·R

P � 1500 psia (596.26°F) P � 1750 psia (617.17°F) P � 2000 psia (635.85°F)

Sat. 0.27695 1092.1 1169.0 1.3362 0.22681 1080.5 1153.9 1.3112 0.18815 1066.8 1136.4 1.2863600 0.28189 1097.2 1175.4 1.3423650 0.33310 1147.2 1239.7 1.4016 0.26292 1122.8 1207.9 1.3607 0.20586 1091.4 1167.6 1.3146700 0.37198 1183.6 1286.9 1.4433 0.30252 1166.8 1264.7 1.4108 0.24894 1147.6 1239.8 1.3783750 0.40535 1214.4 1326.9 1.4771 0.33455 1201.5 1309.8 1.4489 0.28074 1187.4 1291.3 1.4218800 0.43550 1242.2 1363.1 1.5064 0.36266 1231.7 1349.1 1.4807 0.30763 1220.5 1334.3 1.4567850 0.46356 1268.2 1396.9 1.5328 0.38835 1259.3 1385.1 1.5088 0.33169 1250.0 1372.8 1.4867900 0.49015 1293.1 1429.2 1.5569 0.41238 1285.4 1419.0 1.5341 0.35390 1277.5 1408.5 1.5134

1000 0.54031 1340.9 1490.8 1.6007 0.45719 1334.9 1482.9 1.5796 0.39479 1328.7 1474.9 1.56061100 0.58781 1387.3 1550.5 1.6402 0.49917 1382.4 1544.1 1.6201 0.43266 1377.5 1537.6 1.60211200 0.63355 1433.3 1609.2 1.6767 0.53932 1429.2 1603.9 1.6572 0.46864 1425.1 1598.5 1.64001400 0.72172 1525.7 1726.0 1.7432 0.61621 1522.6 1722.1 1.7245 0.53708 1519.5 1718.3 1.70811600 0.80714 1619.8 1843.8 1.8033 0.69031 1617.4 1840.9 1.7852 0.60269 1615.0 1838.0 1.76931800 0.89090 1716.4 1963.7 1.8589 0.76273 1714.5 1961.5 1.8410 0.66660 1712.5 1959.2 1.82552000 0.97358 1815.9 2086.1 1.9108 0.83406 1814.2 2084.3 1.8931 0.72942 1812.6 2082.6 1.8778

P � 2500 psia (668.17°F) P � 3000 psia (695.41°F) P � 3500 psia

Sat. 0.13076 1031.2 1091.7 1.2330 0.08460 969.8 1016.8 1.1587650 0.02492 663.7 679.9 0.8632700 0.16849 1098.4 1176.3 1.3072 0.09838 1005.3 1059.9 1.1960 0.03065 760.0 779.9 0.9511750 0.20327 1154.9 1249.0 1.3686 0.14840 1114.1 1196.5 1.3118 0.10460 1057.6 1125.4 1.2434800 0.22949 1195.9 1302.0 1.4116 0.17601 1167.5 1265.3 1.3676 0.13639 1134.3 1222.6 1.3224850 0.25174 1230.1 1346.6 1.4463 0.19771 1208.2 1317.9 1.4086 0.15847 1183.8 1286.5 1.3721900 0.27165 1260.7 1386.4 1.4761 0.21640 1242.8 1362.9 1.4423 0.17659 1223.4 1337.8 1.4106950 0.29001 1289.1 1423.3 1.5028 0.23321 1273.9 1403.3 1.4716 0.19245 1257.8 1382.4 1.4428

1000 0.30726 1316.1 1458.2 1.5271 0.24876 1302.8 1440.9 1.4978 0.20687 1289.0 1423.0 1.47111100 0.33949 1367.3 1524.4 1.5710 0.27732 1356.8 1510.8 1.5441 0.23289 1346.1 1496.9 1.52011200 0.36966 1416.6 1587.6 1.6103 0.30367 1408.0 1576.6 1.5850 0.25654 1399.3 1565.4 1.56271400 0.42631 1513.3 1710.5 1.6802 0.35249 1507.0 1702.7 1.6567 0.29978 1500.7 1694.8 1.63641600 0.48004 1610.1 1832.2 1.7424 0.39830 1605.3 1826.4 1.7199 0.33994 1600.4 1820.5 1.70061800 0.53205 1708.6 1954.8 1.7991 0.44237 1704.7 1950.3 1.7773 0.37833 1700.8 1945.8 1.75862000 0.58295 1809.4 2079.1 1.8518 0.48532 1806.1 2075.6 1.8304 0.41561 1802.9 2072.1 1.8121

P � 4000 psia P � 5000 psia P � 6000 psia

650 0.02448 657.9 676.1 0.8577 0.02379 648.3 670.3 0.8485 0.02325 640.3 666.1 0.8408700 0.02871 742.3 763.6 0.9347 0.02678 721.8 746.6 0.9156 0.02564 708.1 736.5 0.9028750 0.06370 962.1 1009.2 1.1410 0.03373 821.8 853.0 1.0054 0.02981 788.7 821.8 0.9747800 0.10520 1094.2 1172.1 1.2734 0.05937 986.9 1041.8 1.1581 0.03949 897.1 941.0 1.0711850 0.12848 1156.7 1251.8 1.3355 0.08551 1092.4 1171.5 1.2593 0.05815 1018.6 1083.1 1.1819900 0.14647 1202.5 1310.9 1.3799 0.10390 1155.9 1252.1 1.3198 0.07584 1103.5 1187.7 1.2603950 0.16176 1240.7 1360.5 1.4157 0.11863 1203.9 1313.6 1.3643 0.09010 1163.7 1263.7 1.3153

1000 0.17538 1274.6 1404.4 1.4463 0.13128 1244.0 1365.5 1.4004 0.10208 1211.4 1324.7 1.35781100 0.19957 1335.1 1482.8 1.4983 0.15298 1312.2 1453.8 1.4590 0.12211 1288.4 1424.0 1.42371200 0.22121 1390.3 1554.1 1.5426 0.17185 1372.1 1531.1 1.5070 0.13911 1353.4 1507.8 1.47581300 0.24128 1443.0 1621.6 1.5821 0.18902 1427.8 1602.7 1.5490 0.15434 1412.5 1583.8 1.52031400 0.26028 1494.3 1687.0 1.6182 0.20508 1481.4 1671.1 1.5868 0.16841 1468.4 1655.4 1.55981600 0.29620 1595.5 1814.7 1.6835 0.23505 1585.6 1803.1 1.6542 0.19438 1575.7 1791.5 1.62941800 0.33033 1696.8 1941.4 1.7422 0.26320 1689.0 1932.5 1.7142 0.21853 1681.1 1923.7 1.69072000 0.36335 1799.7 2068.6 1.7961 0.29023 1793.2 2061.7 1.7689 0.24155 1786.7 2054.9 1.7463

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TABLE A–7ECompressed liquid water

T v u h s v u h s v u h s°F ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm ·R ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm ·R ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm ·R

P � 500 psia (467.04°F) P � 1000 psia (544.65°F) P � 1500 psia (596.26°F)

Sat. 0.019750 447.68 449.51 0.64900 0.021595 538.58 542.57 0.74341 0.023456 605.07 611.58 0.8083632 0.015994 0.01 1.49 0.00001 0.015966 0.03 2.99 0.00005 0.015939 0.05 4.48 0.0000850 0.015998 18.03 19.51 0.03601 0.015972 17.99 20.95 0.03593 0.015946 17.95 22.38 0.03584

100 0.016107 67.86 69.35 0.12930 0.016083 67.69 70.67 0.12899 0.016059 67.53 71.98 0.12869150 0.016317 117.70 119.21 0.21462 0.016292 117.42 120.43 0.21416 0.016267 117.14 121.66 0.21369200 0.016607 167.70 169.24 0.29349 0.016580 167.31 170.38 0.29289 0.016553 166.92 171.52 0.29229250 0.016972 218.04 219.61 0.36708 0.016941 217.51 220.65 0.36634 0.016911 217.00 221.69 0.36560300 0.017417 268.92 270.53 0.43641 0.017380 268.24 271.46 0.43551 0.017345 267.57 272.39 0.43463350 0.017954 320.64 322.30 0.50240 0.017910 319.77 323.08 0.50132 0.017866 318.91 323.87 0.50025400 0.018609 373.61 375.33 0.56595 0.018552 372.48 375.91 0.56463 0.018496 371.37 376.51 0.56333450 0.019425 428.44 430.24 0.62802 0.019347 426.93 430.51 0.62635 0.019271 425.47 430.82 0.62472500 0.020368 484.03 487.80 0.68764 0.020258 482.01 487.63 0.68550550 0.021595 542.50 548.50 0.74731

P � 2000 psia (635.85°F) P � 3000 psia (695.41°F) P � 5000 psia

Sat. 0.025634 662.33 671.82 0.86224 0.034335 783.39 802.45 0.9732132 0.015912 0.07 5.96 0.00010 0.015859 0.10 8.90 0.00011 0.015756 0.13 14.71 0.0000250 0.015921 17.91 23.80 0.03574 0.015870 17.83 26.64 0.03554 0.015773 17.65 32.25 0.03505

100 0.016035 67.36 73.30 0.12838 0.015988 67.04 75.91 0.12776 0.015897 66.41 81.12 0.12652200 0.016527 166.54 172.66 0.29170 0.016475 165.79 174.94 0.29053 0.016375 164.36 179.51 0.28824300 0.017310 266.92 273.33 0.43376 0.017242 265.65 275.22 0.43204 0.017112 263.24 279.07 0.42874400 0.018442 370.30 377.12 0.56205 0.018338 368.22 378.41 0.55959 0.018145 364.35 381.14 0.55492450 0.019199 424.06 431.16 0.62314 0.019062 421.36 431.94 0.62010 0.018812 416.40 433.80 0.61445500 0.020154 480.08 487.54 0.68346 0.019960 476.45 487.53 0.67958 0.019620 469.94 488.10 0.67254560 0.021739 552.21 560.26 0.75692 0.021405 546.59 558.47 0.75126 0.020862 537.08 556.38 0.74154600 0.023317 605.77 614.40 0.80898 0.022759 597.42 610.06 0.80086 0.021943 584.42 604.72 0.78803640 0.024765 654.52 668.27 0.85476 0.023358 634.95 656.56 0.83603680 0.028821 728.63 744.64 0.92288 0.025366 690.67 714.14 0.88745700 0.026777 721.78 746.56 0.91564

974 | Thermodynamics

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Appendix 2 | 975

TABLE A–8ESaturated ice—water vapor

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy,

Sat.ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/Ibm · R

press., Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat.Temp., Psat ice, vapor, ice, Subl., vapor, ice, Subl., vapor, ice, Subl., vapor,T °F psia vi vg ui uig ug hi hig hg si sig sg

32.018 0.08871 0.01747 3299.6 �143.34 1164.2 1020.9 �143.34 1218.3 1075.0 �0.29146 2.4779 2.186432 0.08864 0.01747 3302.6 �143.35 1164.2 1020.9 �143.35 1218.4 1075.0 �0.29148 2.4779 2.186530 0.08086 0.01747 3605.8 �144.35 1164.6 1020.2 �144.35 1218.5 1074.2 �0.29353 2.4883 2.194825 0.06405 0.01746 4505.8 �146.85 1165.4 1018.6 �146.85 1218.8 1072.0 �0.29865 2.5146 2.216020 0.05049 0.01746 5657.6 �149.32 1166.2 1016.9 �149.32 1219.1 1069.8 �0.30377 2.5414 2.237615 0.03960 0.01745 7138.9 �151.76 1167.0 1015.2 �151.76 1219.3 1067.6 �0.30889 2.5687 2.259810 0.03089 0.01744 9054.0 �154.18 1167.8 1013.6 �154.18 1219.5 1065.4 �0.31401 2.5965 2.2825

5 0.02397 0.01743 11,543 �156.57 1168.5 1011.9 �156.57 1219.7 1063.1 �0.31913 2.6248 2.30570 0.01850 0.01743 14,797 �158.94 1169.2 1010.3 �158.94 1219.9 1060.9 �0.32426 2.6537 2.3295

�5 0.01420 0.01742 19,075 �161.28 1169.9 1008.6 �161.28 1220.0 1058.7 �0.32938 2.6832 2.3538�10 0.01083 0.01741 24,731 �163.60 1170.6 1007.0 �163.60 1220.1 1056.5 �0.33451 2.7133 2.3788�15 0.00821 0.01740 32,257 �165.90 1171.2 1005.3 �165.90 1220.2 1054.3 �0.33964 2.7440 2.4044�20 0.00619 0.01740 42,335 �168.16 1171.8 1003.6 �168.16 1220.3 1052.1 �0.34478 2.7754 2.4306�25 0.00463 0.01739 55,917 �170.41 1172.4 1002.0 �170.41 1220.3 1049.9 �0.34991 2.8074 2.4575�30 0.00344 0.01738 74,345 �172.63 1173.0 1000.3 �172.63 1220.3 1047.7 �0.35505 2.8401 2.4850�35 0.00254 0.01738 99,526 �174.83 1173.5 998.7 �174.83 1220.3 1045.5 �0.36019 2.8735 2.5133�40 0.00186 0.01737 134,182 �177.00 1174.0 997.0 �177.00 1220.3 1043.3 �0.36534 2.9076 2.5423

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976 | Thermodynamics

100

6032

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

2.42.01.51.00.50.0

00421

0221

1200

0611

0411

0211

0011

0621

0821

0031mbl/utByplahtnEtnatsnoC

0231

0431

0631

0831

0041

0241

0441

0641

0841

0051

0251

0451

0651

0851

0061

0261

0461

0661

0861

0071

0271

0471

0671

0871

02221

12000

1180

0421

0221

1200

0611

0411

0211

0011

0621

0821

0031mbl/utByplahtnEtnatsnoC

0231

0431

0631

0831

0041

0241

0441

0641

0841

0051

0251

0451

0651

0851

0061

0261

0461

0661

0861

0071

0271

0471

0671

0871

18001800

0221

1200

1180

100

6030

14.6

9610

64

2

1

0.5

0.2

0.1

200

300

400

600

1000

1500

2500

100

600 30

14.6

9610

64

2

20030

0400

600

Conn

stan

t Pre

ssur

elb

f/in

2

1000

1500

2000

4000

50006000

8000

1000

300032

04

4000

5000

6000

8000

1000

3000

32044

1500

2500

100

6030

14.6

9610

64

2

1

0.5

0.2

0.1

200

300

400

600

1000

1500

2500

100

60 30

14.6

9610

64

2

20030

0400

600

Con

stan

t Pre

ssur

elb

f/in

2

1000

1500

2000

4000

50006000

8000

1000

300032

04

4000

5000

6000

8000

1000

3000

3204

1500

2500

454035302520

Con

stan

t Qua

lity,

Perc

ent

15

105

9590858075

70

65605550454035302520

Con

stan

t Qua

lity,

Perc

ent

15

105

9590858075

70

65605550

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

700

750

800

850

900

950

1000

1050

1100

1150

1200

1250

1300

Constant Superheat °F

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

700

750

800

850

900

950

1000

1050

1100

1150

1200

1250

1300

Constant Superheat °F

110010501000950900850

750

700

650600

550

500

450

400

350300

250

20015010050

1100

1050

1000

950

900

850

800

Constant E

nthalpyB

tu/lbm

700

650

600

550

500450

400350300

250

20015010050

1150

400400

500500

600600

700700

800800

900900

10001000

11001100

12001200

13001300

14001400

15001500

110010501000950900850

750

700

650600

550

500

450

400

350300

250

20015010050

1100

1050

1000

950

900

850

800

Constant E

nthalpyB

tu/lbm

700

650

600

550

500450

400350300

250

20015010050

1150

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

20

50

100

200

5001000

10

5

Constant Volume ft3/lbm

2

1

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.06

053

0.03

20

50

100

200

5001000

10

5

Constant Volume ft3/lbm

2

1

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.05

053

0.03

100

50

20

5

Con

stan

t Vol

ume

ft3 /lb

m2

1

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.11

0.05

053

200

500

1000

2000

100

50

20

10

5

Con

stan

t Vol

ume

ft3 /lb

m2

1

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.05

053

200

500

1000

2000

20002000

Entropy, Btu/lbm·R

Tem

pera

ture

, ºF

FIGURE A–9ET-s diagram for water.

Source: Joseph H. Keenan, Frederick G. Keyes, Philip G. Hill, and Joan G. Moore, Steam Tables (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1969).

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Appendix 2 | 977

1600

1550

1500

1450

1400

1350

1300

1250

1200

1150

1100

1050

1000

9501.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

1.9

1.9

2.0

2.0

2.1

2.1

2.2

2.2

0.20.2

0.50.5

1.0

1.0

2 ps

ia2

psia33

4455

6688

1010

2020

50 p

sia

50 p

sia10

010

200

20030

030

500

50010

0010

002000

200032

0432

045000

5000

10,0

00 p

sia

10,0

00 p

sia

xx = 0.98 = 0.98

saturation

saturationlineline

0.960.96

0.940.94

0.920.92

0.900.90

0.880.880.86

0.860.840.840.82

0.820.800.80

100100

200200°°FF

300300

400400

500500

600600

700700°°FF

800800

900900

10001000

11001100°°FF

0.2

0.5

1.0

2 ps

ia34

56

810

20

50 p

sia10

20030

50010

00200032

045000

10,0

00 p

sia

x = 0.98

saturationline

0.960.94

0.920.90

0.880.860.840.820.80

100

200°F

300

400

500

600

700°F

800

900

1000

1100°F

Entropy, Btu/lbm · R

Entropy, Btu/lbm · R

Ent

halp

y, B

tu /

lbm

FIGURE A–10EMollier diagram for water.

Source: Joseph H. Keenan, Frederick G. Keyes,Philip G. Hill, and Joan G. Moore, Steam Tables(New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1969).

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TABLE A–11ESaturated refrigerant-134a—Temperature table

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy,ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm ·R

Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat.Temp., press., liquid, vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor,T °F Psat psia vf vg uf ufg ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg

�40 7.432 0.01130 5.7796 �0.016 89.167 89.15 0.000 97.100 97.10 0.00000 0.23135 0.23135�35 8.581 0.01136 5.0509 1.484 88.352 89.84 1.502 96.354 97.86 0.00355 0.22687 0.23043�30 9.869 0.01143 4.4300 2.990 87.532 90.52 3.011 95.601 98.61 0.00708 0.22248 0.22956�25 11.306 0.01150 3.8988 4.502 86.706 91.21 4.526 94.839 99.36 0.01058 0.21817 0.22875�20 12.906 0.01156 3.4426 6.019 85.874 91.89 6.047 94.068 100.12 0.01405 0.21394 0.22798�15 14.680 0.01163 3.0494 7.543 85.036 92.58 7.574 93.288 100.86 0.01749 0.20978 0.22727�10 16.642 0.01171 2.7091 9.073 84.191 93.26 9.109 92.498 101.61 0.02092 0.20569 0.22660

�5 18.806 0.01178 2.4137 10.609 83.339 93.95 10.650 91.698 102.35 0.02431 0.20166 0.225980 21.185 0.01185 2.1564 12.152 82.479 94.63 12.199 90.886 103.08 0.02769 0.19770 0.225395 23.793 0.01193 1.9316 13.702 81.610 95.31 13.755 90.062 103.82 0.03104 0.19380 0.22485

10 26.646 0.01201 1.7345 15.259 80.733 95.99 15.318 89.226 104.54 0.03438 0.18996 0.2243415 29.759 0.01209 1.5612 16.823 79.846 96.67 16.889 88.377 105.27 0.03769 0.18617 0.22386

20 33.147 0.01217 1.4084 18.394 78.950 97.34 18.469 87.514 105.98 0.04098 0.18243 0.2234125 36.826 0.01225 1.2732 19.973 78.043 98.02 20.056 86.636 106.69 0.04426 0.17874 0.2230030 40.813 0.01234 1.1534 21.560 77.124 98.68 21.653 85.742 107.40 0.04752 0.17509 0.2226035 45.124 0.01242 1.0470 23.154 76.195 99.35 23.258 84.833 108.09 0.05076 0.17148 0.2222440 49.776 0.01251 0.95205 24.757 75.253 100.01 24.873 83.907 108.78 0.05398 0.16791 0.2218945 54.787 0.01261 0.86727 26.369 74.298 100.67 26.497 82.963 109.46 0.05720 0.16437 0.2215750 60.175 0.01270 0.79136 27.990 73.329 101.32 28.131 82.000 110.13 0.06039 0.16087 0.2212755 65.957 0.01280 0.72323 29.619 72.346 101.97 29.775 81.017 110.79 0.06358 0.15740 0.22098

60 72.152 0.01290 0.66195 31.258 71.347 102.61 31.431 80.013 111.44 0.06675 0.15396 0.2207065 78.780 0.01301 0.60671 32.908 70.333 103.24 33.097 78.988 112.09 0.06991 0.15053 0.2204470 85.858 0.01312 0.55681 34.567 69.301 103.87 34.776 77.939 112.71 0.07306 0.14713 0.2201975 93.408 0.01323 0.51165 36.237 68.251 104.49 36.466 76.866 113.33 0.07620 0.14375 0.2199580 101.45 0.01334 0.47069 37.919 67.181 105.10 38.169 75.767 113.94 0.07934 0.14038 0.2197285 110.00 0.01347 0.43348 39.612 66.091 105.70 39.886 74.641 114.53 0.08246 0.13703 0.2194990 119.08 0.01359 0.39959 41.317 64.979 106.30 41.617 73.485 115.10 0.08559 0.13368 0.21926

95 128.72 0.01372 0.36869 43.036 63.844 106.88 43.363 72.299 115.66 0.08870 0.13033 0.21904100 138.93 0.01386 0.34045 44.768 62.683 107.45 45.124 71.080 116.20 0.09182 0.12699 0.21881105 149.73 0.01400 0.31460 46.514 61.496 108.01 46.902 69.825 116.73 0.09493 0.12365 0.21858110 161.16 0.01415 0.29090 48.276 60.279 108.56 48.698 68.533 117.23 0.09804 0.12029 0.21834115 173.23 0.01430 0.26913 50.054 59.031 109.08 50.512 67.200 117.71 0.10116 0.11693 0.21809

120 185.96 0.01446 0.24909 51.849 57.749 109.60 52.346 65.823 118.17 0.10428 0.11354 0.21782130 213.53 0.01482 0.21356 55.495 55.071 110.57 56.080 62.924 119.00 0.11054 0.10670 0.21724140 244.06 0.01521 0.18315 59.226 52.216 111.44 59.913 59.801 119.71 0.11684 0.09971 0.21655150 277.79 0.01567 0.15692 63.059 49.144 112.20 63.864 56.405 120.27 0.12321 0.09251 0.21572160 314.94 0.01619 0.13410 67.014 45.799 112.81 67.958 52.671 120.63 0.12970 0.08499 0.21469170 355.80 0.01681 0.11405 71.126 42.097 113.22 72.233 48.499 120.73 0.13634 0.07701 0.21335180 400.66 0.01759 0.09618 75.448 37.899 113.35 76.752 43.726 120.48 0.14323 0.06835 0.21158190 449.90 0.01860 0.07990 80.082 32.950 113.03 81.631 38.053 119.68 0.15055 0.05857 0.20911200 504.00 0.02009 0.06441 85.267 26.651 111.92 87.140 30.785 117.93 0.15867 0.04666 0.20533210 563.76 0.02309 0.04722 91.986 16.498 108.48 94.395 19.015 113.41 0.16922 0.02839 0.19761

Source: Tables A–11E through A–13E are generated using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. The routine used in calculations is the R134a, which is based on the fundamental equation of state developed by R. Tillner-Roth and H.D. Baehr, “An International Standard Formulation for the Thermodynamic Properties of 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) for Temperatures from 170 K to 455 K and Pressures up to 70 MPa,” J. Phys. Chem, Ref. Data, Vol. 23, No. 5, 1994. The enthalpy and entropy values of saturated liquid are set to zeroat �40°C (and �40°F).

978 | Thermodynamics

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Appendix 2 | 979

TABLE A–12ESaturated refrigerant-134a—Pressure table

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy,ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm · R

Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat.Press., temp., liquid, vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor,P psia T °F vf vg uf ufg ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg

5 �53.09 0.01113 8.3785 �3.918 91.280 87.36 �3.907 99.022 95.11 �0.00945 0.24353 0.2340810 �29.52 0.01144 4.3753 3.135 87.453 90.59 3.156 95.528 98.68 0.00742 0.22206 0.2294815 �14.15 0.01165 2.9880 7.803 84.893 92.70 7.835 93.155 100.99 0.01808 0.20908 0.2271520 �2.43 0.01182 2.2772 11.401 82.898 94.30 11.445 91.282 102.73 0.02605 0.19962 0.2256725 7.17 0.01196 1.8429 14.377 81.231 95.61 14.432 89.701 104.13 0.03249 0.19213 0.22462

30 15.37 0.01209 1.5492 16.939 79.780 96.72 17.006 88.313 105.32 0.03793 0.18589 0.2238335 22.57 0.01221 1.3369 19.205 78.485 97.69 19.284 87.064 106.35 0.04267 0.18053 0.2231940 29.01 0.01232 1.1760 21.246 77.307 98.55 21.337 85.920 107.26 0.04688 0.17580 0.2226845 34.86 0.01242 1.0497 23.110 76.221 99.33 23.214 84.858 108.07 0.05067 0.17158 0.2222550 40.23 0.01252 0.94791 24.832 75.209 100.04 24.948 83.863 108.81 0.05413 0.16774 0.22188

55 45.20 0.01261 0.86400 26.435 74.258 100.69 26.564 82.924 109.49 0.05733 0.16423 0.2215660 49.84 0.01270 0.79361 27.939 73.360 101.30 28.080 82.030 110.11 0.06029 0.16098 0.2212765 54.20 0.01279 0.73370 29.357 72.505 101.86 29.510 81.176 110.69 0.06307 0.15796 0.2210270 58.30 0.01287 0.68205 30.700 71.688 102.39 30.867 80.357 111.22 0.06567 0.15512 0.2208075 62.19 0.01295 0.63706 31.979 70.905 102.88 32.159 79.567 111.73 0.06813 0.15245 0.22059

80 65.89 0.01303 0.59750 33.201 70.151 103.35 33.394 78.804 112.20 0.07047 0.14993 0.2204085 69.41 0.01310 0.56244 34.371 69.424 103.79 34.577 78.064 112.64 0.07269 0.14753 0.2202290 72.78 0.01318 0.53113 35.495 68.719 104.21 35.715 77.345 113.06 0.07481 0.14525 0.2200695 76.02 0.01325 0.50301 36.578 68.035 104.61 36.811 76.645 113.46 0.07684 0.14307 0.21991

100 79.12 0.01332 0.47760 37.623 67.371 104.99 37.869 75.962 113.83 0.07879 0.14097 0.21976

110 85.00 0.01347 0.43347 39.612 66.091 105.70 39.886 74.641 114.53 0.08246 0.13703 0.21949120 90.49 0.01360 0.39644 41.485 64.869 106.35 41.787 73.371 115.16 0.08589 0.13335 0.21924130 95.64 0.01374 0.36491 43.258 63.696 106.95 43.589 72.144 115.73 0.08911 0.12990 0.21901140 100.51 0.01387 0.33771 44.945 62.564 107.51 45.304 70.954 116.26 0.09214 0.12665 0.21879150 105.12 0.01400 0.31401 46.556 61.467 108.02 46.945 69.795 116.74 0.09501 0.12357 0.21857

160 109.50 0.01413 0.29316 48.101 60.401 108.50 48.519 68.662 117.18 0.09774 0.12062 0.21836170 113.69 0.01426 0.27466 49.586 59.362 108.95 50.035 67.553 117.59 0.10034 0.11781 0.21815180 117.69 0.01439 0.25813 51.018 58.345 109.36 51.497 66.464 117.96 0.10284 0.11511 0.21795190 121.53 0.01452 0.24327 52.402 57.349 109.75 52.912 65.392 118.30 0.10524 0.11250 0.21774200 125.22 0.01464 0.22983 53.743 56.371 110.11 54.285 64.335 118.62 0.10754 0.10998 0.21753

220 132.21 0.01490 0.20645 56.310 54.458 110.77 56.917 62.256 119.17 0.11192 0.10517 0.21710240 138.73 0.01516 0.18677 58.746 52.591 111.34 59.419 60.213 119.63 0.11603 0.10061 0.21665260 144.85 0.01543 0.16996 61.071 50.757 111.83 61.813 58.192 120.00 0.11992 0.09625 0.21617280 150.62 0.01570 0.15541 63.301 48.945 112.25 64.115 56.184 120.30 0.12362 0.09205 0.21567300 156.09 0.01598 0.14266 65.452 47.143 112.60 66.339 54.176 120.52 0.12715 0.08797 0.21512

350 168.64 0.01672 0.11664 70.554 42.627 113.18 71.638 49.099 120.74 0.13542 0.07814 0.21356400 179.86 0.01757 0.09642 75.385 37.963 113.35 76.686 43.798 120.48 0.14314 0.06848 0.21161450 190.02 0.01860 0.07987 80.092 32.939 113.03 81.641 38.041 119.68 0.15056 0.05854 0.20911500 199.29 0.01995 0.06551 84.871 27.168 112.04 86.718 31.382 118.10 0.15805 0.04762 0.20566

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TABLE A–13ESuperheated refrigerant-134a

s s sT v u h Btu/ v u h Btu/ v u h Btu/°F ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm · R ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm · R ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm ·R

P � 10 psia (Tsat � �29.52°F) P � 15 psia (Tsat � �14.15°F) P � 20 psia (Tsat � �2.43°F)

Sat. 4.3753 90.59 98.68 0.22948 2.9880 92.70 100.99 0.22715 2.2772 94.30 102.73 0.22567�20 4.4856 92.13 100.43 0.23350

0 4.7135 95.41 104.14 0.24174 3.1001 95.08 103.68 0.23310 2.2922 94.72 103.20 0.2267120 4.9380 98.77 107.91 0.24976 3.2551 98.48 107.52 0.24127 2.4130 98.19 107.12 0.2350440 5.1600 102.20 111.75 0.25761 3.4074 101.95 111.41 0.24922 2.5306 101.70 111.07 0.2431160 5.3802 105.72 115.67 0.26531 3.5577 105.50 115.38 0.25700 2.6461 105.28 115.07 0.2509780 5.5989 109.32 119.68 0.27288 3.7064 109.13 119.42 0.26463 2.7600 108.93 119.15 0.25866

100 5.8165 113.01 123.78 0.28033 3.8540 112.84 123.54 0.27212 2.8726 112.66 123.29 0.26621120 6.0331 116.79 127.96 0.28767 4.0006 116.63 127.74 0.27950 2.9842 116.47 127.52 0.27363140 6.2490 120.66 132.22 0.29490 4.1464 120.51 132.02 0.28677 3.0950 120.37 131.82 0.28093160 6.4642 124.61 136.57 0.30203 4.2915 124.48 136.39 0.29393 3.2051 124.35 136.21 0.28812180 6.6789 128.65 141.01 0.30908 4.4361 128.53 140.84 0.30100 3.3146 128.41 140.67 0.29521200 6.8930 132.77 145.53 0.31604 4.5802 132.66 145.37 0.30798 3.4237 132.55 145.22 0.30221220 7.1068 136.98 150.13 0.32292 4.7239 136.88 149.99 0.31487 3.5324 136.78 149.85 0.30912

P � 30 psia (Tsat � 15.37°F) P � 40 psia (Tsat � 29.01°F) P � 50 psia (Tsat � 40.23°F)

Sat. 1.5492 96.72 105.32 0.22383 1.1760 98.55 107.26 0.22268 0.9479 100.04 108.81 0.2218820 1.5691 97.56 106.27 0.2258140 1.6528 101.17 110.35 0.23414 1.2126 100.61 109.58 0.2273860 1.7338 104.82 114.45 0.24219 1.2768 104.34 113.79 0.23565 1.0019 103.84 113.11 0.2303180 1.8130 108.53 118.59 0.25002 1.3389 108.11 118.02 0.24363 1.0540 107.68 117.43 0.23847

100 1.8908 112.30 122.80 0.25767 1.3995 111.93 122.29 0.25140 1.1043 111.55 121.77 0.24637120 1.9675 116.15 127.07 0.26517 1.4588 115.82 126.62 0.25900 1.1534 115.48 126.16 0.25406140 2.0434 120.08 131.42 0.27254 1.5173 119.78 131.01 0.26644 1.2015 119.47 130.59 0.26159160 2.1185 124.08 135.84 0.27979 1.5750 123.81 135.47 0.27375 1.2488 123.53 135.09 0.26896180 2.1931 128.16 140.34 0.28693 1.6321 127.91 140.00 0.28095 1.2955 127.66 139.65 0.27621200 2.2671 132.32 144.91 0.29398 1.6887 132.10 144.60 0.28803 1.3416 131.87 144.28 0.28333220 2.3408 136.57 149.56 0.30092 1.7449 136.36 149.27 0.29501 1.3873 136.15 148.98 0.29036240 2.4141 140.89 154.29 0.30778 1.8007 140.70 154.03 0.30190 1.4326 140.50 153.76 0.29728260 2.4871 145.30 159.10 0.31456 1.8562 145.12 158.86 0.30871 1.4776 144.93 158.60 0.30411280 2.5598 149.78 163.99 0.32126 1.9114 149.61 163.76 0.31543 1.5223 149.44 163.53 0.31086

P � 60 psia (Tsat � 49.84°F) P � 70 psia (Tsat � 58.30°F) P � 80 psia (Tsat � 65.89°F)

Sat. 0.7936 101.30 110.11 0.22127 0.6821 102.39 111.22 0.22080 0.59750 103.35 112.20 0.2204060 0.8179 103.31 112.39 0.22570 0.6857 102.73 111.62 0.2215580 0.8636 107.23 116.82 0.23407 0.7271 106.76 116.18 0.23016 0.62430 106.26 115.51 0.22661

100 0.9072 111.16 121.24 0.24211 0.7662 110.76 120.68 0.23836 0.66009 110.34 120.11 0.23499120 0.9495 115.14 125.68 0.24991 0.8037 114.78 125.19 0.24628 0.69415 114.42 124.69 0.24304140 0.9908 119.16 130.16 0.25751 0.8401 118.85 129.73 0.25398 0.72698 118.52 129.29 0.25083160 1.0312 123.25 134.70 0.26496 0.8756 122.97 134.31 0.26149 0.75888 122.68 133.91 0.25841180 1.0709 127.41 139.30 0.27226 0.9105 127.15 138.94 0.26885 0.79003 126.89 138.58 0.26583200 1.1101 131.63 143.96 0.27943 0.9447 131.40 143.63 0.27607 0.82059 131.16 143.31 0.27310220 1.1489 135.93 148.69 0.28649 0.9785 135.71 148.39 0.28317 0.85065 135.49 148.09 0.28024240 1.1872 140.30 153.48 0.29344 1.0118 140.10 153.21 0.29015 0.88030 139.90 152.93 0.28726260 1.2252 144.75 158.35 0.30030 1.0449 144.56 158.10 0.29704 0.90961 144.37 157.84 0.29418280 1.2629 149.27 163.29 0.30707 1.0776 149.10 163.06 0.30384 0.93861 148.92 162.82 0.30100300 1.3004 153.87 168.31 0.31376 1.1101 153.71 168.09 0.31055 0.96737 153.54 167.86 0.30773320 1.3377 158.54 173.39 0.32037 1.1424 158.39 173.19 0.31718 0.99590 158.24 172.98 0.31438

980 | Thermodynamics

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Appendix 2 | 981

TABLE A–13ESuperheated refrigerant-134a (Concluded )

s s sT v u h Btu/ v u h Btu/ v u h Btu/°F ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm · R ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm · R ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm · R

P � 90 psia (Tsat � 72.78°F) P � 100 psia (Tsat � 79.12°F) P � 120 psia (Tsat � 90.49°F)

Sat. 0.53113 104.21 113.06 0.22006 0.47760 104.99 113.83 0.21976 0.39644 106.35 115.16 0.2192480 0.54388 105.74 114.80 0.22330 0.47906 105.18 114.05 0.22016

100 0.57729 109.91 119.52 0.23189 0.51076 109.45 118.90 0.22900 0.41013 108.48 117.59 0.22362120 0.60874 114.04 124.18 0.24008 0.54022 113.66 123.65 0.23733 0.43692 112.84 122.54 0.23232140 0.63885 118.19 128.83 0.24797 0.56821 117.86 128.37 0.24534 0.46190 117.15 127.41 0.24058160 0.66796 122.38 133.51 0.25563 0.59513 122.08 133.09 0.25309 0.48563 121.46 132.25 0.24851180 0.69629 126.62 138.22 0.26311 0.62122 126.35 137.85 0.26063 0.50844 125.79 137.09 0.25619200 0.72399 130.92 142.97 0.27043 0.64667 130.67 142.64 0.26801 0.53054 130.17 141.95 0.26368220 0.75119 135.27 147.78 0.27762 0.67158 135.05 147.47 0.27523 0.55206 134.59 146.85 0.27100240 0.77796 139.69 152.65 0.28468 0.69605 139.49 152.37 0.28233 0.57312 139.07 151.80 0.27817260 0.80437 144.19 157.58 0.29162 0.72016 143.99 157.32 0.28931 0.59379 143.61 156.79 0.28521280 0.83048 148.75 162.58 0.29847 0.74396 148.57 162.34 0.29618 0.61413 148.21 161.85 0.29214300 0.85633 153.38 167.64 0.30522 0.76749 153.21 167.42 0.30296 0.63420 152.88 166.96 0.29896320 0.88195 158.08 172.77 0.31189 0.79079 157.93 172.56 0.30964 0.65402 157.62 172.14 0.30569

P � 140 psia (Tsat � 100.50°F) P � 160 psia (Tsat � 109.50°F) P � 180 psia (Tsat � 117.69°F)

Sat. 0.33771 107.51 116.26 0.21879 0.29316 108.50 117.18 0.21836 0.25813 109.36 117.96 0.21795120 0.36243 111.96 121.35 0.22773 0.30578 111.01 120.06 0.22337 0.26083 109.94 118.63 0.21910140 0.38551 116.41 126.40 0.23628 0.32774 115.62 125.32 0.23230 0.28231 114.77 124.17 0.22850160 0.40711 120.81 131.36 0.24443 0.34790 120.13 130.43 0.24069 0.30154 119.42 129.46 0.23718180 0.42766 125.22 136.30 0.25227 0.36686 124.62 135.49 0.24871 0.31936 124.00 134.64 0.24540200 0.44743 129.65 141.24 0.25988 0.38494 129.12 140.52 0.25645 0.33619 128.57 139.77 0.25330220 0.46657 134.12 146.21 0.26730 0.40234 133.64 145.55 0.26397 0.35228 133.15 144.88 0.26094240 0.48522 138.64 151.21 0.27455 0.41921 138.20 150.62 0.27131 0.36779 137.76 150.01 0.26837260 0.50345 143.21 156.26 0.28166 0.43564 142.81 155.71 0.27849 0.38284 142.40 155.16 0.27562280 0.52134 147.85 161.35 0.28864 0.45171 147.48 160.85 0.28554 0.39751 147.10 160.34 0.28273300 0.53895 152.54 166.50 0.29551 0.46748 152.20 166.04 0.29246 0.41186 151.85 165.57 0.28970320 0.55630 157.30 171.71 0.30228 0.48299 156.98 171.28 0.29927 0.42594 156.66 170.85 0.29656340 0.57345 162.13 176.98 0.30896 0.49828 161.83 176.58 0.30598 0.43980 161.53 176.18 0.30331360 0.59041 167.02 182.32 0.31555 0.51338 166.74 181.94 0.31260 0.45347 166.46 181.56 0.30996

P � 200 psia (Tsat � 125.22°F) P � 300 psia (Tsat � 156.09°F) P � 400 psia (Tsat � 179.86°F)

Sat. 0.22983 110.11 118.62 0.21753 0.14266 112.60 120.52 0.21512 0.09642 113.35 120.48 0.21161140 0.24541 113.85 122.93 0.22481160 0.26412 118.66 128.44 0.23384 0.14656 113.82 121.95 0.21745180 0.28115 123.35 133.76 0.24229 0.16355 119.52 128.60 0.22802 0.09658 113.41 120.56 0.21173200 0.29704 128.00 138.99 0.25035 0.17776 124.78 134.65 0.23733 0.11440 120.52 128.99 0.22471220 0.31212 132.64 144.19 0.25812 0.19044 129.85 140.42 0.24594 0.12746 126.44 135.88 0.23500240 0.32658 137.30 149.38 0.26565 0.20211 134.83 146.05 0.25410 0.13853 131.95 142.20 0.24418260 0.34054 141.99 154.59 0.27298 0.21306 139.77 151.59 0.26192 0.14844 137.26 148.25 0.25270280 0.35410 146.72 159.82 0.28015 0.22347 144.70 157.11 0.26947 0.15756 142.48 154.14 0.26077300 0.36733 151.50 165.09 0.28718 0.23346 149.65 162.61 0.27681 0.16611 147.65 159.94 0.26851320 0.38029 156.33 170.40 0.29408 0.24310 154.63 168.12 0.28398 0.17423 152.80 165.70 0.27599340 0.39300 161.22 175.77 0.30087 0.25246 159.64 173.66 0.29098 0.18201 157.97 171.44 0.28326360 0.40552 166.17 181.18 0.30756 0.26159 164.70 179.22 0.29786 0.18951 163.15 177.18 0.29035

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982 | Thermodynamics

662200

558800

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6600

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--2200

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TT==

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620

580

540

500

460

420

380

340

T=

300°

F

260

220

180

140

100

6020-20

-60

22 0180

140

T=

100°F

60

20

-20

-60

T=

-100°F

9595

2244330033554400

9900 8855 8800

7755llbb

mm//ff

tt33

7700 6655 6600 5555 5500 4455DDeennssiittyy == 1188 llbbmm//fftt33

00..001122

00..001188

00..002244

00..007722

00..00996600..1122

00..1188

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00..336600..4488

00..772200..996611..2211..8822..44

33..66

44..88

77..2299..66

1122

95

24303540

90 85 80

75lb

m/f

t3

70 65 60 55 50 45Density = 18 lbm/ft3

0.012

0.018

0.02400..003366

00..004488

0.036

0.0480.072

0.0960.12

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/lbm

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0.12

0.10

0.08

0.06

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00..44 00..55 00..66

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satu

rate

dliq

uid

0.1

0.2 0.3

0.4 0.5 0.6

0.7 0.8

0.9

satu

rate

dva

pour

–20 20 14060 100 180 220 260

–20 20 14060 100 180 220 260

Enthalpy, Btu/lbm

1

2

4

10

20

40

100

200

400

1000

2000

3000

1

2

4

10

20

40

100

200

400

1000

2000

3000

Pres

sure

, psi

a

R-134aR-134aR-134a

FIGURE A–14EP-h diagram for refrigerant-134a.

Reprinted by permission of American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

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Appendix 2 | 983

TABLE A–16EProperties of the atmosphere at high altitude

Speed of ThermalAltitude, Temperature, Pressure, Gravity, sound, Density, Viscosity conductivity,ft °F psia g, ft/s2 ft/s lbm/ft3 m, lbm/ft · s Btu/h · ft · R

0 59.00 14.7 32.174 1116 0.07647 1.202 � 10�5 0.0146500 57.22 14.4 32.173 1115 0.07536 1.199 � 10�5 0.0146

1000 55.43 14.2 32.171 1113 0.07426 1.196 � 10�5 0.01461500 53.65 13.9 32.169 1111 0.07317 1.193 � 10�5 0.01452000 51.87 13.7 32.168 1109 0.07210 1.190 � 10�5 0.01452500 50.09 13.4 32.166 1107 0.07104 1.186 � 10�5 0.01443000 48.30 13.2 32.165 1105 0.06998 1.183 � 10�5 0.01443500 46.52 12.9 32.163 1103 0.06985 1.180 � 10�5 0.01434000 44.74 12.7 32.162 1101 0.06792 1.177 � 10�5 0.01434500 42.96 12.5 32.160 1099 0.06690 1.173 � 10�5 0.01425000 41.17 12.2 32.159 1097 0.06590 1.170 � 10�5 0.01425500 39.39 12.0 32.157 1095 0.06491 1.167 � 10�5 0.01416000 37.61 11.8 32.156 1093 0.06393 1.164 � 10�5 0.01416500 35.83 11.6 32.154 1091 0.06296 1.160 � 10�5 0.01417000 34.05 11.3 32.152 1089 0.06200 1.157 � 10�5 0.01407500 32.26 11.1 32.151 1087 0.06105 1.154 � 10�5 0.01408000 30.48 10.9 32.149 1085 0.06012 1.150 � 10�5 0.01398500 28.70 10.7 32.148 1083 0.05919 1.147 � 10�5 0.01399000 26.92 10.5 32.146 1081 0.05828 1.144 � 10�5 0.01389500 25.14 10.3 32.145 1079 0.05738 1.140 � 10�5 0.0138

10,000 23.36 10.1 32.145 1077 0.05648 1.137 � 10�5 0.013711,000 19.79 9.72 32.140 1073 0.05473 1.130 � 10�5 0.013612,000 16.23 9.34 32.137 1069 0.05302 1.124 � 10�5 0.013613,000 12.67 8.99 32.134 1065 0.05135 1.117 � 10�5 0.013514,000 9.12 8.63 32.131 1061 0.04973 1.110 � 10�5 0.013415,000 5.55 8.29 32.128 1057 0.04814 1.104 � 10�5 0.013316,000 �1.99 7.97 32.125 1053 0.04659 1.097 � 10�5 0.013217,000 �1.58 7.65 32.122 1049 0.04508 1.090 � 10�5 0.013218,000 �5.14 7.34 32.119 1045 0.04361 1.083 � 10�5 0.013019,000 �8.70 7.05 32.115 1041 0.04217 1.076 � 10�5 0.012920,000 �12.2 6.76 32.112 1037 0.04077 1.070 � 10�5 0.012822,000 �19.4 6.21 32.106 1029 0.03808 1.056 � 10�5 0.012624,000 �26.5 5.70 32.100 1020 0.03553 1.042 � 10�5 0.012426,000 �33.6 5.22 32.094 1012 0.03311 1.028 � 10�5 0.012228,000 �40.7 4.78 32.088 1003 0.03082 1.014 � 10�5 0.012130,000 �47.8 4.37 32.082 995 0.02866 1.000 � 10�5 0.011932,000 �54.9 3.99 32.08 987 0.02661 0.986 � 10�5 0.011734,000 �62.0 3.63 32.07 978 0.02468 0.971 � 10�5 0.011536,000 �69.2 3.30 32.06 969 0.02285 0.956 � 10�5 0.011338,000 �69.7 3.05 32.06 968 0.02079 0.955 � 10�5 0.011340,000 �69.7 2.73 32.05 968 0.01890 0.955 � 10�5 0.011345,000 �69.7 2.148 32.04 968 0.01487 0.955 � 10�5 0.011350,000 �69.7 1.691 32.02 968 0.01171 0.955 � 10�5 0.011355,000 �69.7 1.332 32.00 968 0.00922 0.955 � 10�5 0.011360,000 �69.7 1.048 31.99 968 0.00726 0.955 � 10�5 0.0113

Source: U.S. Standard Atmosphere Supplements, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1966. Based on year-round mean conditions at 45° latitude and varies with the time of the year and the weather patterns. The conditions at sea level (z � 0) are taken to be P � 14.696 psia, T � 59°F, r � 0.076474 lbm/ft3, g � 32.1741 ft2/s.

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TABLE A–17EIdeal-gas properties of air

T h u s° T h u s°R Btu/lbm Pr Btu/lbm vr Btu/lbm · R R Btu/lbm Pr Btu/lbm vr Btu/lbm · R

360 85.97 0.3363 61.29 396.6 0.50369 1600 395.74 71.13 286.06 8.263 0.87130380 90.75 0.4061 64.70 346.6 0.51663 1650 409.13 80.89 296.03 7.556 0.87954400 95.53 0.4858 68.11 305.0 0.52890 1700 422.59 90.95 306.06 6.924 0.88758420 100.32 0.5760 71.52 270.1 0.54058 1750 436.12 101.98 316.16 6.357 0.89542440 105.11 0.6776 74.93 240.6 0.55172 1800 449.71 114.0 326.32 5.847 0.90308460 109.90 0.7913 78.36 215.33 0.56235 1850 463.37 127.2 336.55 5.388 0.91056480 114.69 0.9182 81.77 193.65 0.57255 1900 477.09 141.5 346.85 4.974 0.91788500 119.48 1.0590 85.20 174.90 0.58233 1950 490.88 157.1 357.20 4.598 0.92504520 124.27 1.2147 88.62 158.58 0.59173 2000 504.71 174.0 367.61 4.258 0.93205537 128.10 1.3593 91.53 146.34 0.59945 2050 518.71 192.3 378.08 3.949 0.93891540 129.06 1.3860 92.04 144.32 0.60078 2100 532.55 212.1 388.60 3.667 0.94564

560 133.86 1.5742 95.47 131.78 0.60950 2150 546.54 223.5 399.17 3.410 0.95222580 138.66 1.7800 98.90 120.70 0.61793 2200 560.59 256.6 409.78 3.176 0.95919600 143.47 2.005 102.34 110.88 0.62607 2250 574.69 281.4 420.46 2.961 0.96501620 148.28 2.249 105.78 102.12 0.63395 2300 588.82 308.1 431.16 2.765 0.97123640 153.09 2.514 109.21 94.30 0.64159 2350 603.00 336.8 441.91 2.585 0.97732

660 157.92 2.801 112.67 87.27 0.64902 2400 617.22 367.6 452.70 2.419 0.98331680 162.73 3.111 116.12 80.96 0.65621 2450 631.48 400.5 463.54 2.266 0.98919700 167.56 3.446 119.58 75.25 0.66321 2500 645.78 435.7 474.40 2.125 0.99497720 172.39 3.806 123.04 70.07 0.67002 2550 660.12 473.3 485.31 1.996 1.00064740 177.23 4.193 126.51 65.38 0.67665 2600 674.49 513.5 496.26 1.876 1.00623

760 182.08 4.607 129.99 61.10 0.68312 2650 688.90 556.3 507.25 1.765 1.01172780 186.94 5.051 133.47 57.20 0.68942 2700 703.35 601.9 518.26 1.662 1.01712800 191.81 5.526 136.97 53.63 0.69558 2750 717.83 650.4 529.31 1.566 1.02244820 196.69 6.033 140.47 50.35 0.70160 2800 732.33 702.0 540.40 1.478 1.02767840 201.56 6.573 143.98 47.34 0.70747 2850 746.88 756.7 551.52 1.395 1.03282

860 206.46 7.149 147.50 44.57 0.71323 2900 761.45 814.8 562.66 1.318 1.03788880 211.35 7.761 151.02 42.01 0.71886 2950 776.05 876.4 573.84 1.247 1.04288900 216.26 8.411 154.57 39.64 0.72438 3000 790.68 941.4 585.04 1.180 1.04779920 221.18 9.102 158.12 37.44 0.72979 3050 805.34 1011 596.28 1.118 1.05264940 226.11 9.834 161.68 35.41 0.73509 3100 820.03 1083 607.53 1.060 1.05741

960 231.06 10.61 165.26 33.52 0.74030 3150 834.75 1161 618.82 1.006 1.06212980 236.02 11.43 168.83 31.76 0.74540 3200 849.48 1242 630.12 0.955 1.06676

1000 240.98 12.30 172.43 30.12 0.75042 3250 864.24 1328 641.46 0.907 1.071341040 250.95 14.18 179.66 27.17 0.76019 3300 879.02 1418 652.81 0.8621 1.075851080 260.97 16.28 186.93 24.58 0.76964 3350 893.83 1513 664.20 0.8202 1.08031

1120 271.03 18.60 194.25 22.30 0.77880 3400 908.66 1613 675.60 0.7807 1.084701160 281.14 21.18 201.63 20.29 0.78767 3450 923.52 1719 687.04 0.7436 1.089041200 291.30 24.01 209.05 18.51 0.79628 3500 938.40 1829 698.48 0.7087 1.093321240 301.52 27.13 216.53 16.93 0.80466 3550 953.30 1946 709.95 0.6759 1.097551280 311.79 30.55 224.05 15.52 0.81280 3600 968.21 2068 721.44 0.6449 1.10172

1320 322.11 34.31 231.63 14.25 0.82075 3650 983.15 2196 732.95 0.6157 1.105841360 332.48 38.41 239.25 13.12 0.82848 3700 998.11 2330 744.48 0.5882 1.109911400 342.90 42.88 246.93 12.10 0.83604 3750 1013.1 2471 756.04 0.5621 1.113931440 353.37 47.75 254.66 11.17 0.84341 3800 1028.1 2618 767.60 0.5376 1.117911480 363.89 53.04 262.44 10.34 0.85062 3850 1043.1 2773 779.19 0.5143 1.12183

1520 374.47 58.78 270.26 9.578 0.85767 3900 1058.1 2934 790.80 0.4923 1.125711560 385.08 65.00 278.13 8.890 0.86456 3950 1073.2 3103 802.43 0.4715 1.12955

984 | Thermodynamics

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Appendix 2 | 985

TABLE A–17EIdeal-gas properties of air (Concluded)

T h u s° T h u s°R Btu/lbm Pr Btu/lbm vr Btu/lbm · R R Btu/lbm Pr Btu/lbm vr Btu/lbm · R

4000 1088.3 3280 814.06 0.4518 1.13334 4600 1270.4 6089 955.04 0.2799 1.17575

4050 1103.4 3464 825.72 0.4331 1.13709 4700 1300.9 6701 978.73 0.2598 1.182324100 1118.5 3656 837.40 0.4154 1.14079 4800 1331.5 7362 1002.5 0.2415 1.188764150 1133.6 3858 849.09 0.3985 1.14446 4900 1362.2 8073 1026.3 0.2248 1.195084200 1148.7 4067 860.81 0.3826 1.14809 5000 1392.9 8837 1050.1 0.2096 1.201294300 1179.0 4513 884.28 0.3529 1.15522 5100 1423.6 9658 1074.0 0.1956 1.20738

4400 1209.4 4997 907.81 0.3262 1.16221 5200 1454.4 10,539 1098.0 0.1828 1.213364500 1239.9 5521 931.39 0.3019 1.16905 5300 1485.3 11,481 1122.0 0.1710 1.21923

Note: The properties Pr (relative pressure) and vr (relative specific volume) are dimensionless quantities used in the analysis of isentropic processes, andshould not be confused with the properties pressure and specific volume.

Source: Kenneth Wark, Thermodynamics, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983), pp. 832–33, Table A–5. Originally published in J. H. Keenan andJ. Kaye, Gas Tables (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1948).

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TABLE A–18EIdeal-gas properties of nitrogen, N2

T_h

_u

_s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R

300 2,082.0 1,486.2 41.695 1080 7,551.0 5,406.2 50.651320 2,221.0 1,585.5 42.143 1100 7,695.0 5,510.5 50.783340 2,360.0 1,684.4 42.564 1120 7,839.3 5,615.2 50.912360 2,498.9 1,784.0 42.962 1140 7,984.0 5,720.1 51.040380 2,638.0 1,883.4 43.337 1160 8,129.0 5,825.4 51.167

400 2,777.0 1,982.6 43.694 1180 8,274.4 5,931.0 51.291420 2,916.1 2,082.0 44.034 1200 8,420.0 6,037.0 51.143440 3,055.1 2,181.3 44.357 1220 8,566.1 6,143.4 51.534460 3,194.1 2,280.6 44.665 1240 8,712.6 6,250.1 51.653480 3,333.1 2,379.9 44.962 1260 8,859.3 6,357.2 51.771

500 3,472.2 2,479.3 45.246 1280 9,006.4 6,464.5 51.887520 3,611.3 2,578.6 45.519 1300 9,153.9 6,572.3 51.001537 3,729.5 2,663.1 45.743 1320 9,301.8 6,680.4 52.114540 3,750.3 2,678.0 45.781 1340 9,450.0 6,788.9 52.225560 3,889.5 2,777.4 46.034 1360 9,598.6 6,897.8 52.335

580 4,028.7 2,876.9 46.278 1380 9,747.5 7,007.0 52.444600 4,167.9 2,976.4 46.514 1400 9,896.9 7,116.7 52.551620 4,307.1 3,075.9 46.742 1420 10,046.6 7,226.7 52.658640 4,446.4 3,175.5 46.964 1440 10,196.6 7,337.0 52.763660 4,585.8 3,275.2 47.178 1460 10,347.0 7,447.6 52.867

680 4,725.3 3,374.9 47.386 1480 10,497.8 7,558.7 52.969700 4,864.9 3,474.8 47.588 1500 10,648.0 7,670.1 53.071720 5,004.5 3,574.7 47.785 1520 10,800.4 7,781.9 53.171740 5,144.3 3,674.7 47.977 1540 10,952.2 7,893.9 53.271760 5,284.1 3,774.9 48.164 1560 11,104.3 8,006.4 53.369

780 5,424.2 3,875.2 48.345 1580 11,256.9 8,119.2 53.465800 5,564.4 3,975.7 48.522 1600 11,409.7 8,232.3 53.561820 5,704.7 4,076.3 48.696 1620 11,562.8 8,345.7 53.656840 5,845.3 4,177.1 48.865 1640 11,716.4 8,459.6 53.751860 5,985.9 4,278.1 49.031 1660 11,870.2 8,573.6 53.844

880 6,126.9 4,379.4 49.193 1680 12,024.3 8,688.1 53.936900 6,268.1 4,480.8 49.352 1700 12,178.9 8,802.9 54.028920 6,409.6 4,582.6 49.507 1720 12,333.7 8,918.0 54.118940 6,551.2 4,684.5 49.659 1740 12,488.8 9,033.4 54.208960 6,693.1 4,786.7 49.808 1760 12,644.3 9,149.2 54.297

980 6,835.4 4,889.3 49.955 1780 12,800.2 9,265.3 54.3851000 6,977.9 4,992.0 50.099 1800 12,956.3 9,381.7 54.4721020 7,120.7 5,095.1 50.241 1820 13,112.7 9,498.4 54.5591040 7,263.8 5,198.5 50.380 1840 13,269.5 9,615.5 54.6451060 7,407.2 5,302.2 50.516 1860 13,426.5 9,732.8 54.729

986 | Thermodynamics

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Appendix 2 | 987

TABLE A–18EIdeal-gas properties of nitrogen, N2 (Concluded)

T_h

_u

_s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R

1900 13,742 9,968 54.896 3500 27,016 20,065 59.9441940 14,058 10,205 55.061 3540 27,359 20,329 60.0411980 14,375 10,443 55.223 3580 27,703 20,593 60.1382020 14,694 10,682 55.383 3620 28,046 20,858 60.2342060 15,013 10,923 55.540 3660 28,391 21,122 60.328

2100 15,334 11,164 55.694 3700 28,735 21,387 60.4222140 15,656 11,406 55.846 3740 29,080 21,653 60.5152180 15,978 11,649 55.995 3780 29,425 21,919 60.6072220 16,302 11,893 56.141 3820 29,771 22,185 60.6982260 16,626 12,138 56.286 3860 30,117 22,451 60.788

2300 16,951 12,384 56.429 3900 30,463 22,718 60.8772340 17,277 12,630 56.570 3940 30,809 22,985 60.9662380 17,604 12,878 56.708 3980 31,156 23,252 61.0532420 17,392 13,126 56.845 4020 31,503 23,520 61.1392460 18,260 13,375 56.980 4060 31,850 23,788 61.225

2500 18,590 13,625 57.112 4100 32,198 24,056 61.3102540 18,919 13,875 57.243 4140 32,546 24,324 61.3952580 19,250 14,127 57.372 4180 32,894 24,593 61.4792620 19,582 14,379 57.499 4220 33,242 24,862 61.5622660 19,914 14,631 57.625 4260 33,591 25,131 61.644

2700 20,246 14,885 57.750 4300 33,940 25,401 61.7262740 20,580 15,139 57.872 4340 34,289 25,670 61.8062780 20,914 15,393 57.993 4380 34,638 25,940 61.8872820 21,248 15,648 58.113 4420 34,988 26,210 61.9662860 21,584 15,905 58.231 4460 35,338 26,481 62.045

2900 21,920 16,161 58.348 4500 35,688 26,751 62.1232940 22,256 16,417 58.463 4540 36,038 27,022 62.2012980 22,593 16,675 58.576 4580 36,389 27,293 62.2783020 22,930 16,933 58.688 4620 36,739 27,565 62.3543060 23,268 17,192 58.800 4660 37,090 27,836 62.429

3100 23,607 17,451 58.910 4700 37,441 28,108 62.5043140 23,946 17,710 59.019 4740 37,792 28,379 62.5783180 24,285 17,970 59.126 4780 38,144 28,651 62.6523220 24,625 18,231 59.232 4820 38,495 28,924 62.7253260 24,965 18,491 59.338 4860 38,847 29,196 62.798

3300 25,306 18,753 59.442 4900 39,199 29,468 62.8703340 25,647 19,014 59.544 5000 40,080 30,151 63.0493380 25,989 19,277 59.646 5100 40,962 30,834 63.2233420 26,331 19,539 59.747 5200 41,844 31,518 63.3953460 26,673 19,802 59.846 5300 42,728 32,203 63.563

Source: Tables A–18E through A–23E are adapted from Kenneth Wark, Thermodynamics, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983), pp. 834–44. Originally published in J. H. Keenan and J. Kaye, Gas Tables (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1945).

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TABLE A–19EIdeal-gas properties of oxygen, O2

T_h

_u

_s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R

300 2,073.5 1,477.8 44.927 1080 7,696.8 5,552.1 54.064320 2,212.6 1,577.1 45.375 1100 7,850.4 5,665.9 54.204340 2,351.7 1,676.5 45.797 1120 8,004.5 5,780.3 54.343360 2,490.8 1,775.9 46.195 1140 8,159.1 5,895.2 54.480380 2,630.0 1,875.3 46.571 1160 8,314.2 6,010.6 54.614

400 2,769.1 1,974.8 46.927 1180 8,469.8 6,126.5 54.748420 2,908.3 2,074.3 47.267 1200 8,625.8 6,242.8 54.879440 3,047.5 2,173.8 47.591 1220 8,782.4 6,359.6 55.008460 3,186.9 2,273.4 47.900 1240 8,939.4 6,476.9 55.136480 3,326.5 2,373.3 48.198 1260 9,096.7 6,594.5 55.262

500 3,466.2 2,473.2 48.483 1280 9,254.6 6,712.7 55.386520 3,606.1 2,573.4 48.757 1300 9,412.9 6,831.3 55.508537 3,725.1 2,658.7 48.982 1320 9,571.9 6,950.2 55.630540 3,746.2 2,673.8 49.021 1340 9,730.7 7,069.6 55.750560 3,886.6 2,774.5 49.276 1360 9,890.2 7,189.4 55.867

580 4,027.3 2,875.5 49.522 1380 10,050.1 7,309.6 55.984600 4,168.3 2,976.8 49.762 1400 10,210.4 7,430.1 56.099620 4,309.7 3,078.4 49.993 1420 10,371.0 7,551.1 56.213640 4,451.4 3,180.4 50.218 1440 10,532.0 7,672.4 56.326660 4,593.5 3,282.9 50.437 1460 10,693.3 7,793.9 56.437

680 4,736.2 3,385.8 50.650 1480 10,855.1 7,916.0 56.547700 4,879.3 3,489.2 50.858 1500 11,017.1 8,038.3 56.656720 5,022.9 3,593.1 51.059 1520 11,179.6 8,161.1 56.763740 5,167.0 3,697.4 51.257 1540 11,342.4 8,284.2 56.869760 5,311.4 3,802.4 51.450 1560 11,505.4 8,407.4 56.975

780 5,456.4 3,907.5 51.638 1580 11,668.8 8,531.1 57.079800 5,602.0 4,013.3 51.821 1600 11,832.5 8,655.1 57.182820 5,748.1 4,119.7 52.002 1620 11,996.6 8,779.5 57.284840 5,894.8 4,226.6 52.179 1640 12,160.9 8,904.1 57.385860 6,041.9 4,334.1 52.352 1660 12,325.5 9,029.0 57.484

880 6,189.6 4,442.0 52.522 1680 12,490.4 9,154.1 57.582900 6,337.9 4,550.6 52.688 1700 12,655.6 9,279.6 57.680920 6,486.7 4,659.7 52.852 1720 12,821.1 9,405.4 57.777940 6,636.1 4,769.4 53.012 1740 12,986.9 9,531.5 57.873960 6,786.0 4,879.5 53.170 1760 13,153.0 9,657.9 57.968

980 6,936.4 4,990.3 53.326 1780 13,319.2 9,784.4 58.0621000 7,087.5 5,101.6 53.477 1800 13,485.8 9,911.2 58.1551020 7,238.9 5,213.3 53.628 1820 13,652.5 10,038.2 58.2471040 7,391.0 5,325.7 53.775 1840 13,819.6 10,165.6 58.3391060 7,543.6 5,438.6 53.921 1860 13,986.8 10,293.1 58.428

988 | Thermodynamics

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Appendix 2 | 989

TABLE A–19EIdeal-gas properties of oxygen, O2 (Concluded)

T_h

_u

_s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R

1900 14,322 10,549 58.607 3500 28,273 21,323 63.9141940 14,658 10,806 58.782 3540 28,633 21,603 64.0161980 14,995 11,063 58.954 3580 28,994 21,884 64.1142020 15,333 11,321 59.123 3620 29,354 22,165 64.2172060 15,672 11,581 59.289 3660 29,716 22,447 64.316

2100 16,011 11,841 59.451 3700 30,078 22,730 64.4152140 16,351 12,101 59.612 3740 30,440 23,013 64.5122180 16,692 12,363 59.770 3780 30,803 23,296 64.6092220 17,036 12,625 59.926 3820 31,166 23,580 64.7042260 17,376 12,888 60.077 3860 31,529 23,864 64.800

2300 17,719 13,151 60.228 3900 31,894 24,149 64.8932340 18,062 13,416 60.376 3940 32,258 24,434 64.9862380 18,407 13,680 60.522 3980 32,623 24,720 65.0782420 18,572 13,946 60.666 4020 32,989 25,006 65.1692460 19,097 14,212 60.808 4060 33,355 25,292 65.260

2500 19,443 14,479 60.946 4100 33,722 25,580 65.3502540 19,790 14,746 61.084 4140 34,089 25,867 64.4392580 20,138 15,014 61.220 4180 34,456 26,155 65.5272620 20,485 15,282 61.354 4220 34,824 26,144 65.6152660 20,834 15,551 61.486 4260 35,192 26,733 65.702

2700 21,183 15,821 61.616 4300 35,561 27,022 65.7882740 21,533 16,091 61.744 4340 35,930 27,312 65.8732780 21,883 16,362 61.871 4380 36,300 27,602 65.9582820 22,232 16,633 61.996 4420 36,670 27,823 66.0422860 22,584 16,905 62.120 4460 37,041 28,184 66.125

2900 22,936 17,177 62.242 4500 37,412 28,475 66.2082940 23,288 17,450 62.363 4540 37,783 28,768 66.2902980 23,641 17,723 62.483 4580 38,155 29,060 66.3723020 23,994 17,997 62.599 4620 38,528 29,353 66.4533060 24,348 18,271 62.716 4660 38,900 29,646 66.533

3100 24,703 18,546 62.831 4700 39,274 29,940 66.6133140 25,057 18,822 62.945 4740 39,647 30,234 66.6913180 25,413 19,098 63.057 4780 40,021 30,529 66.7703220 25,769 19,374 63.169 4820 40,396 30,824 66.8483260 26,175 19,651 63.279 4860 40,771 31,120 66.925

3300 26,412 19,928 63.386 4900 41,146 31,415 67.0033340 26,839 20,206 63.494 5000 42,086 32,157 67.1933380 27,197 20,485 63.601 5100 43,021 32,901 67.3803420 27,555 20,763 63.706 5200 43,974 33,648 67.5623460 27,914 21,043 63.811 5300 44,922 34,397 67.743

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TABLE A–20EIdeal-gas properties of carbon dioxide, CO2

T_h

_u

_s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R

300 2,108.2 1,512.4 46.353 1080 9,575.8 7,431.1 58.072320 2,256.6 1,621.1 46.832 1100 9,802.6 7,618.1 58.281340 2,407.3 1,732.1 47.289 1120 10,030.6 7,806.4 58.485360 2,560.5 1,845.6 47.728 1140 10,260.1 7,996.2 58.689380 2,716.4 1,961.8 48.148 1160 10,490.6 8,187.0 58.889

400 2,874.7 2,080.4 48.555 1180 10,722.3 8,379.0 59.088420 3,035.7 2,201.7 48.947 1200 10,955.3 8,572.3 59.283440 3,199.4 2,325.6 49.329 1220 11,189.4 8,766.6 59.477460 3,365.7 2,452.2 49.698 1240 11,424.6 8,962.1 59.668480 3,534.7 2,581.5 50.058 1260 11,661.0 9,158.8 59.858

500 3,706.2 2,713.3 50.408 1280 11,898.4 9,356.5 60.044520 3,880.3 2,847.7 50.750 1300 12,136.9 9,555.3 60.229537 4,027.5 2,963.8 51.032 1320 12,376.4 9,755.0 60.412540 4,056.8 2,984.4 51.082 1340 12,617.0 9,955.9 60.593560 4,235.8 3,123.7 51.408 1360 12,858.5 10,157.7 60.772

580 4,417.2 3,265.4 51.726 1380 13,101.0 10,360.5 60.949600 4,600.9 3,409.4 52.038 1400 13,344.7 10,564.5 61.124620 4,786.6 3,555.6 52.343 1420 13,589.1 10,769.2 61.298640 4,974.9 3,704.0 52.641 1440 13,834.5 10,974.8 61.469660 5,165.2 3,854.6 52.934 1460 14,080.8 11,181.4 61.639

680 5,357.6 4,007.2 53.225 1480 14,328.0 11,388.9 61.800700 5,552.0 4,161.9 53.503 1500 14,576.0 11,597.2 61.974720 5,748.4 4,318.6 53.780 1520 14,824.9 11,806.4 62.138740 5,946.8 4,477.3 54.051 1540 15,074.7 12,016.5 62.302760 6,147.0 4,637.9 54.319 1560 15,325.3 12,227.3 62.464

780 6,349.1 4,800.1 54.582 1580 15,576.7 12,439.0 62.624800 6,552.9 4,964.2 54.839 1600 15,829.0 12,651.6 62.783820 6,758.3 5,129.9 55.093 1620 16,081.9 12,864.8 62.939840 6,965.7 5,297.6 55.343 1640 16,335.7 13,078.9 63.095860 7,174.7 5,466.9 55.589 1660 16,590.2 13,293.7 63.250

880 7,385.3 5,637.7 55.831 1680 16,845.5 13,509.2 63.403900 7,597.6 5,810.3 56.070 1700 17,101.4 13,725.4 63.555920 7,811.4 5,984.4 56.305 1720 17,358.1 13,942.4 63.704940 8,026.8 6,160.1 56.536 1740 17,615.5 14,160.1 63.853960 8,243.8 6,337.4 56.765 1760 17,873.5 14,378.4 64.001

980 8,462.2 6,516.1 56.990 1780 18,132.2 14,597.4 64.1471000 8,682.1 6,696.2 57.212 1800 18,391.5 14,816.9 64.2921020 8,903.4 6,877.8 57.432 1820 18,651.5 15,037.2 64.4351040 9,126.2 7,060.9 57.647 1840 18,912.2 15,258.2 64.5781060 9,350.3 7,245.3 57.861 1860 19,173.4 15,479.7 64.719

990 | Thermodynamics

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Appendix 2 | 991

TABLE A–20EIdeal-gas properties of carbon dioxide, CO2 (Concluded )

T_h

_u

_s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R

1900 19,698 15,925 64.999 3500 41,965 35,015 73.4621940 20,224 16,372 65.272 3540 42,543 35,513 73.6271980 20,753 16,821 65.543 3580 43,121 36,012 73.7892020 21,284 17,273 65.809 3620 43,701 36,512 73.9512060 21,818 17,727 66.069 3660 44,280 37,012 74.110

2100 22,353 18,182 66.327 3700 44,861 37,513 74.2672140 22,890 18,640 66.581 3740 45,442 38,014 74.4232180 23,429 19,101 66.830 3780 46,023 38,517 74.5782220 23,970 19,561 67.076 3820 46,605 39,019 74.7322260 24,512 20,024 67.319 3860 47,188 39,522 74.884

2300 25,056 20,489 67.557 3900 47,771 40,026 75.0332340 25,602 20,955 67.792 3940 48,355 40,531 75.1822380 26,150 21,423 68.025 3980 48,939 41,035 75.3302420 26,699 21,893 68.253 4020 49,524 41,541 75.4772460 27,249 22,364 68.479 4060 50,109 42,047 75.622

2500 27,801 22,837 68.702 4100 50,695 42,553 75.7652540 28,355 23,310 68.921 4140 51,282 43,060 75.9072580 28,910 23,786 69.138 4180 51,868 43,568 76.0482620 29,465 24,262 69.352 4220 52,456 44,075 76.1882660 30,023 24,740 69.563 4260 53,044 44,584 76.327

2700 30,581 25,220 69.771 4300 53,632 45,093 76.4642740 31,141 25,701 69.977 4340 54,221 45,602 76.6012780 31,702 26,181 70.181 4380 54,810 46,112 76.7362820 32,264 26,664 70.382 4420 55,400 46,622 76.8702860 32,827 27,148 70.580 4460 55,990 47,133 77.003

2900 33,392 27,633 70.776 4500 56,581 47,645 77.1352940 33,957 28,118 70.970 4540 57,172 48,156 77.2662980 34,523 28,605 71.160 4580 57,764 48,668 77.3953020 35,090 29,093 71.350 4620 58,356 49,181 77.5813060 35,659 29,582 71.537 4660 58,948 49,694 77.652

3100 36,228 30,072 71.722 4700 59,541 50,208 77.7793140 36,798 30,562 71.904 4740 60,134 50,721 77.9053180 37,369 31,054 72.085 4780 60,728 51,236 78.0293220 37,941 31,546 72.264 4820 61,322 51,750 78.1533260 38,513 32,039 72.441 4860 61,916 52,265 78.276

3300 39,087 32,533 72.616 4900 62,511 52,781 78.3983340 39,661 33,028 72.788 5000 64,000 54,071 78.6983380 40,236 33,524 72.960 5100 65,491 55,363 78.9943420 40,812 34,020 73.129 5200 66,984 56,658 79.2843460 41,388 34,517 73.297 5300 68,471 57,954 79.569

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TABLE A–21EIdeal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, CO

T_h

_u

_s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R

300 2,081.9 1,486.1 43.223 1080 7,571.1 5,426.4 52.203320 2,220.9 1,585.4 43.672 1100 7,716.8 5,532.3 52.337340 2,359.9 1,684.7 44.093 1120 7,862.9 5,638.7 52.468360 2,498.8 1,783.9 44.490 1140 8,009.2 5,745.4 52.598380 2,637.9 1,883.3 44.866 1160 8,156.1 5,851.5 52.726

400 2,776.9 1,982.6 45.223 1180 8,303.3 5,960.0 52.852420 2,916.0 2,081.9 45.563 1200 8,450.8 6,067.8 52.976440 3,055.0 2,181.2 45.886 1220 8,598.8 6,176.0 53.098460 3,194.0 2,280.5 46.194 1240 8,747.2 6,284.7 53.218480 3,333.0 2,379.8 46.491 1260 8,896.0 6,393.8 53.337

500 3,472.1 2,479.2 46.775 1280 9,045.0 6,503.1 53.455520 3,611.2 2,578.6 47.048 1300 9,194.6 6,613.0 53.571537 3,725.1 2,663.1 47.272 1320 9,344.6 6,723.2 53.685540 3,750.3 2,677.9 47.310 1340 9,494.8 6,833.7 53.799560 3,889.5 2,777.4 47.563 1360 9,645.5 6,944.7 53.910

580 4,028.7 2,876.9 47.807 1380 9,796.6 7,056.1 54.021600 4,168.0 2,976.5 48.044 1400 9,948.1 7,167.9 54.129620 4,307.4 3,076.2 48.272 1420 10,100.0 7,280.1 54.237640 4,446.9 3,175.9 48.494 1440 10,252.2 7,392.6 54.344660 4,586.6 3,275.8 48.709 1460 10,404.8 7,505.4 54.448

680 4,726.2 3,375.8 48.917 1480 10,557.8 7,618.7 54.522700 4,886.0 3,475.9 49.120 1500 10,711.1 7,732.3 54.665720 5,006.1 3,576.3 49.317 1520 10,864.9 7,846.4 54.757740 5,146.4 3,676.9 49.509 1540 11,019.0 7,960.8 54.858760 5,286.8 3,777.5 49.697 1560 11,173.4 8,075.4 54.958

780 5,427.4 3,878.4 49.880 1580 11,328.2 8,190.5 55.056800 5,568.2 3,979.5 50.058 1600 11,483.4 8,306.0 55.154820 5,709.4 4,081.0 50.232 1620 11,638.9 8,421.8 55.251840 5,850.7 4,182.6 50.402 1640 11,794.7 8,537.9 55.347860 5,992.3 4,284.5 50.569 1660 11,950.9 8,654.4 55.411

880 6,134.2 4,386.6 50.732 1680 12,107.5 8,771.2 55.535900 6,276.4 4,489.1 50.892 1700 12,264.3 8,888.3 55.628920 6,419.0 4,592.0 51.048 1720 12,421.4 9,005.7 55.720940 6,561.7 4,695.0 51.202 1740 12,579.0 9,123.6 55.811960 6,704.9 4,798.5 51.353 1760 12,736.7 9,241.6 55.900

980 6,848.4 4,902.3 51.501 1780 12,894.9 9,360.0 55.9901000 6,992.2 5,006.3 51.646 1800 13,053.2 9,478.6 56.0781020 7,136.4 5,110.8 51.788 1820 13,212.0 9,597.7 56.1661040 7,281.0 5,215.7 51.929 1840 13,371.0 9,717.0 56.2531060 7,425.9 5,320.9 52.067 1860 13,530.2 9,836.5 56.339

992 | Thermodynamics

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Appendix 2 | 993

TABLE A–21EIdeal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, CO (Concluded)

T_h

_u

_s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R

1900 13,850 10,077 56.509 3500 27,262 20,311 61.6121940 14,170 10,318 56.677 3540 27,608 20,576 61.7101980 14,492 10,560 56.841 3580 27,954 20,844 61.8072020 14,815 10,803 57.007 3620 28,300 21,111 61.9032060 15,139 11,048 57.161 3660 28,647 21,378 61.998

2100 15,463 11,293 57.317 3700 28,994 21,646 62.0932140 15,789 11,539 57.470 3740 29,341 21,914 62.1862180 16,116 11,787 57.621 3780 29,688 22,182 62.2792220 16,443 12,035 57.770 3820 30,036 22,450 62.3702260 16,722 12,284 57.917 3860 30,384 22,719 62.461

2300 17,101 12,534 58.062 3900 30,733 22,988 62.5112340 17,431 12,784 58.204 3940 31,082 23,257 62.6402380 17,762 13,035 58.344 3980 31,431 23,527 62.7282420 18,093 13,287 58.482 4020 31,780 23,797 62.8162460 18,426 13,541 58.619 4060 32,129 24,067 62.902

2500 18,759 13,794 58.754 4100 32,479 24,337 62.9882540 19,093 14,048 58.885 4140 32,829 24,608 63.0722580 19,427 14,303 59.016 4180 33,179 24,878 63.1562620 19,762 14,559 59.145 4220 33,530 25,149 63.2402660 20,098 14,815 59.272 4260 33,880 25,421 63.323

2700 20,434 15,072 59.398 4300 34,231 25,692 63.4052740 20,771 15,330 59.521 4340 34,582 25,934 63.4862780 21,108 15,588 59.644 4380 34,934 26,235 63.5672820 21,446 15,846 59.765 4420 35,285 26,508 63.6472860 21,785 16,105 59.884 4460 35,637 26,780 63.726

2900 22,124 16,365 60.002 4500 35,989 27,052 63.8052940 22,463 16,225 60.118 4540 36,341 27,325 63.8832980 22,803 16,885 60.232 4580 36,693 27,598 63.9603020 23,144 17,146 60.346 4620 37,046 27,871 64.0363060 23,485 17,408 60.458 4660 37,398 28,144 64.113

3100 23,826 17,670 60.569 4700 37,751 28,417 64.1883140 24,168 17,932 60.679 4740 38,104 28,691 64.2633180 24,510 18,195 60.787 4780 38,457 28,965 64.3373220 24,853 18,458 60.894 4820 38,811 29,239 64.4113260 25,196 18,722 61.000 4860 39,164 29,513 64.484

3300 25,539 18,986 61.105 4900 39,518 29,787 64.5563340 25,883 19,250 61.209 5000 40,403 30,473 64.7353380 26,227 19,515 61.311 5100 41,289 31,161 64.9103420 26,572 19,780 61.412 5200 42,176 31,849 65.0823460 26,917 20,045 61.513 5300 43,063 32,538 65.252

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TABLE A–22EIdeal-gas properties of hydrogen, H2

T_h

_u

_s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R

300 2,063.5 1,467.7 27.337 1400 9,673.8 6,893.6 37.883320 2,189.4 1,553.9 27.742 1500 10,381.5 7,402.7 38.372340 2,317.2 1,642.0 28.130 1600 11,092.5 7,915.1 38.830360 2,446.8 1,731.9 28.501 1700 11,807.4 8,431.4 39.264380 2,577.8 1,823.2 28.856 1800 12,526.8 8,952.2 39.675

400 2,710.2 1,915.8 29.195 1900 13,250.9 9,477.8 40.067420 2,843.7 2,009.6 29.520 2000 13,980.1 10,008.4 40.441440 2,978.1 2,104.3 29.833 2100 14,714.5 10,544.2 40.799460 3,113.5 2,200.0 30.133 2200 15,454.4 11,085.5 41.143480 3,249.4 2,296.2 20.424 2300 16,199.8 11,632.3 41.475

500 3,386.1 2,393.2 30.703 2400 16,950.6 12,184.5 41.794520 3,523.2 2,490.6 30.972 2500 17,707.3 12,742.6 42.104537 3,640.3 2,573.9 31.194 2600 18,469.7 13,306.4 42.403540 3,660.9 2,588.5 31.232 2700 19,237.8 13,876.0 42.692560 3,798.8 2,686.7 31.482 2800 20,011.8 14,451.4 42.973

580 3,937.1 2,785.3 31.724 2900 20,791.5 15,032.5 43.247600 4,075.6 2,884.1 31.959 3000 21,576.9 15,619.3 43.514620 4,214.3 2,983.1 32.187 3100 22,367.7 16,211.5 43.773640 4,353.1 3,082.1 32.407 3200 23,164.1 16,809.3 44.026660 4,492.1 3,181.4 32.621 3300 23,965.5 17,412.1 44.273

680 4,631.1 3,280.7 32.829 3400 24,771.9 18,019.9 44.513700 4,770.2 3,380.1 33.031 3500 25,582.9 18,632.4 44.748720 4,909.5 3,479.6 33.226 3600 26,398.5 19,249.4 44.978740 5,048.8 3,579.2 33.417 3700 27,218.5 19,870.8 45.203760 5,188.1 3,678.8 33.603 3800 28,042.8 20,496.5 45.423

780 5,327.6 3,778.6 33.784 3900 28,871.1 21,126.2 45.638800 5,467.1 3,878.4 33.961 4000 29,703.5 21,760.0 45.849820 5,606.7 3,978.3 34.134 4100 30,539.8 22,397.7 46.056840 5,746.3 4,078.2 34.302 4200 31,379.8 23,039.2 46.257860 5,885.9 4,178.0 34.466 4300 32,223.5 23,684.3 46.456

880 6,025.6 4,278.0 34.627 4400 33,070.9 24,333.1 46.651900 6,165.3 4,378.0 34.784 4500 33,921.6 24,985.2 46.842920 6,305.1 4,478.1 34.938 4600 34,775.7 25,640.7 47.030940 6,444.9 4,578.1 35.087 4700 35,633.0 26,299.4 47.215960 6,584.7 4,678.3 35.235 4800 36,493.4 26,961.2 47.396

980 6,724.6 4,778.4 35.379 4900 35,356.9 27,626.1 47.5741000 6,864.5 4,878.6 35.520 5000 38,223.3 28,294.0 47.7491100 7,564.6 5,380.1 36.188 5100 39,092.8 28,964.9 47.9211200 8,265.8 5,882.8 36.798 5200 39,965.1 29,638.6 48.0901300 8,968.7 6,387.1 37.360 5300 40,840.2 30,315.1 48.257

994 | Thermodynamics

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Appendix 2 | 995

TABLE A–23EIdeal-gas properties of water vapor, H2O

T_h

_u

_s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R

300 2,367.6 1,771.8 40.439 1080 8,768.2 6,623.5 50.854320 2,526.8 1,891.3 40.952 1100 8,942.0 6,757.5 51.013340 2,686.0 2,010.8 41.435 1120 9,116.4 6,892.2 51.171360 2,845.1 2,130.2 41.889 1140 9,291.4 7,027.5 51.325380 3,004.4 2,249.8 42.320 1160 9,467.1 7,163.5 51.478

400 3,163.8 2,369.4 42.728 1180 9,643.4 7,300.1 51.360420 3,323.2 2,489.1 43.117 1200 9,820.4 7,437.4 51.777440 3,482.7 2,608.9 43.487 1220 9,998.0 7,575.2 51.925460 3,642.3 2,728.8 43.841 1240 10,176.1 7,713.6 52.070480 3,802.0 2,848.8 44.182 1260 10,354.9 7,852.7 52.212

500 3,962.0 2,969.1 44.508 1280 10,534.4 7,992.5 52.354520 4,122.0 3,089.4 44.821 1300 10,714.5 8,132.9 52.494537 4,258.0 3,191.9 45.079 1320 10,895.3 8,274.0 52.631540 4,282.4 3,210.0 45.124 1340 11,076.6 8,415.5 52.768560 4,442.8 3,330.7 45.415 1360 11,258.7 8,557.9 52.903

580 4,603.7 3,451.9 45.696 1380 11,441.4 8,700.9 53.037600 4,764.7 3,573.2 45.970 1400 11,624.8 8,844.6 53.168620 4,926.1 3,694.9 46.235 1420 11,808.8 8,988.9 53.299640 5,087.8 3,816.8 46.492 1440 11,993.4 9,133.8 53.428660 5,250.0 3,939.3 46.741 1460 12,178.8 9,279.4 53.556

680 5,412.5 4,062.1 46.984 1480 12,364.8 9,425.7 53.682700 5,575.4 4,185.3 47.219 1500 12,551.4 9,572.7 53.808720 5,738.8 4,309.0 47.450 1520 12,738.8 9,720.3 53.932740 5,902.6 4,433.1 47.673 1540 12,926.8 9,868.6 54.055760 6,066.9 4,557.6 47.893 1560 13,115.6 10,017.6 54.117

780 6,231.7 4,682.7 48.106 1580 13,305.0 10,167.3 54.298800 6,396.9 4,808.2 48.316 1600 13,494.4 10,317.6 54.418820 6,562.6 4,934.2 48.520 1620 13,685.7 10,468.6 54.535840 6,728.9 5,060.8 48.721 1640 13,877.0 10,620.2 54.653860 6,895.6 5,187.8 48.916 1660 14,069.2 10,772.7 54.770

880 7,062.9 5,315.3 49.109 1680 14,261.9 10,925.6 54.886900 7,230.9 5,443.6 49.298 1700 14,455.4 11,079.4 54.999920 7,399.4 5,572.4 49.483 1720 14,649.5 11,233.8 55.113940 7,568.4 5,701.7 49.665 1740 14,844.3 11,388.9 55.226960 7,738.0 5,831.6 49.843 1760 15,039.8 11,544.7 55.339

980 7,908.2 5,962.0 50.019 1780 15,236.1 11,701.2 55.4491000 8,078.2 6,093.0 50.191 1800 15,433.0 11,858.4 55.5591020 8,250.4 6,224.8 50.360 1820 15,630.6 12,016.3 55.6681040 8,422.4 6,357.1 50.528 1840 15,828.7 12,174.7 55.7771060 8,595.0 6,490.0 50.693 1860 16,027.6 12,333.9 55.884

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TABLE A–23EIdeal-gas properties of water vapor, H2O (Concluded)

T_h

_u

_s ° T

_h

_u

_s °

R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R

1900 16,428 12,654 56.097 3500 34,324 27,373 62.8761940 16,830 12,977 56.307 3540 34,809 27,779 63.0151980 17,235 13,303 56.514 3580 35,296 28,187 63.1532020 17,643 13,632 56.719 3620 35,785 28,596 63.2882060 18,054 13,963 56.920 3660 36,274 29,006 63.423

2100 18,467 14,297 57.119 3700 36,765 29,418 63.5572140 18,883 14,633 57.315 3740 37,258 29,831 63.6902180 19,301 14,972 57.509 3780 37,752 30,245 63.8212220 19,722 15,313 57.701 3820 38,247 30,661 63.9522260 20,145 15,657 57.889 3860 38,743 31,077 64.082

2300 20,571 16,003 58.077 3900 39,240 31,495 64.2102340 20,999 16,352 58.261 3940 39,739 31,915 64.3382380 21,429 16,703 58.445 3980 40,239 32,335 64.4652420 21,862 17,057 58.625 4020 40,740 32,757 64.5912460 22,298 17,413 58.803 4060 41,242 33,179 64.715

2500 22,735 17,771 58.980 4100 41,745 33,603 64.8392540 23,175 18,131 59.155 4140 42,250 34,028 64.9622580 23,618 18,494 59.328 4180 42,755 34,454 65.0842620 24,062 18,859 59.500 4220 43,267 34,881 65.2042660 24,508 19,226 59.669 4260 43,769 35,310 65.325

2700 24,957 19,595 59.837 4300 44,278 35,739 65.4442740 25,408 19,967 60.003 4340 44,788 36,169 65.5632780 25,861 20,340 60.167 4380 45,298 36,600 65.6802820 26,316 20,715 60.330 4420 45,810 37,032 65.7972860 26,773 21,093 60.490 4460 46,322 37,465 65.913

2900 27,231 21,472 60.650 4500 46,836 37,900 66.0282940 27,692 21,853 60.809 4540 47,350 38,334 66.1422980 28,154 22,237 60.965 4580 47,866 38,770 66.2553020 28,619 22,621 61.120 4620 48,382 39,207 66.3683060 29,085 23,085 61.274 4660 48,899 39,645 66.480

3100 29,553 23,397 61.426 4700 49,417 40,083 66.5913140 30,023 23,787 61.577 4740 49,936 40,523 66.7013180 30,494 24,179 61.727 4780 50,455 40,963 66.8113220 30,967 24,572 61.874 4820 50,976 41,404 66.9203260 31,442 24,968 62.022 4860 51,497 41,856 67.028

3300 31,918 25,365 62.167 4900 52,019 42,288 67.1353340 32,396 25,763 62.312 5000 53,327 43,398 67.4013380 32,876 26,164 62.454 5100 54,640 44,512 67.6623420 33,357 26,565 62.597 5200 55,957 45,631 67.9183460 33,839 26,968 62.738 5300 57,279 46,754 68.172

996 | Thermodynamics

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Appendix 2 | 997

TABLE A–26EEnthalpy of formation, Gibbs function of formation, and absolute entropy at77°F, 1 atm

_h°f

_g°f

_s °

Substance Formula Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol ·R

Carbon C(s) 0 0 1.36Hydrogen H2(g) 0 0 31.21Nitrogen N2(g) 0 0 45.77Oxygen O2(g) 0 0 49.00Carbon monoxide CO(g) �47,540 �59,010 47.21Carbon dioxide CO2(g) �169,300 �169,680 51.07Water vapor H2O(g) �104,040 �98,350 45.11Water H2O(�) �122,970 �102,040 16.71Hydrogen peroxide H2O2(g) �58,640 �45,430 55.60Ammonia NH3(g) �19,750 �7,140 45.97Methane CH4(g) �32,210 �21,860 44.49Acetylene C2H2(g) �97,540 �87,990 48.00Ethylene C2H4(g) �22,490 �29,306 52.54Ethane C2H6(g) �36,420 �14,150 54.85Propylene C3H6(g) �8,790 �26,980 63.80Propane C3H8(g) �44,680 �10,105 64.51n-Butane C4H10(g) �54,270 �6,760 74.11n-Octane C8H18(g) �89,680 �7,110 111.55n-Octane C8H18(�) �107,530 �2,840 86.23n-Dodecane C12H26(g) �125,190 �21,570 148.86Benzene C6H6(g) �35,680 �55,780 64.34Methyl alcohol CH3OH(g) �86,540 �69,700 57.29Methyl alcohol CH3OH(�) �102,670 �71,570 30.30Ethyl alcohol C2H5OH(g) �101,230 �72,520 67.54Ethyl alcohol C2H5OH(�) �119,470 �75,240 38.40Oxygen O(g) �107,210 �99,710 38.47Hydrogen H(g) �93,780 �87,460 27.39Nitrogen N(g) �203,340 �195,970 36.61Hydroxyl OH(g) �16,790 �14,750 43.92

Source: From JANAF, Thermochemical Tables (Midland, MI: Dow Chemical Co., 1971), SelectedValues of Chemical Thermodynamic Properties, NBS Technical Note 270-3, 1968; and APIResearch Project 44 (Carnegie Press, 1953).

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TABLE A–27EProperties of some common fuels and hydrocarbons

Specific Higher LowerMolar Enthalpy of heat,1 cp heating heatingmass, Density,1 vaporization,2 Btu/ value,3 value,3

Fuel (phase) Formula lbm/lbmol lbm/ft3 Btu/lbm lbm · °F Btu/lbm Btu/lbm

Carbon (s) C 12.011 125 — 0.169 14,100 14,100Hydrogen (g) H2 2.016 — — 3.44 60,970 51,600Carbon monoxide (g) CO 28.013 — — 0.251 4,340 4,340Methane (g) CH4 16.043 — 219 0.525 23,880 21,520Methanol (�) CH4O 32.042 49.3 502 0.604 9,740 8,570Acetylene (g) C2H2 26.038 — — 0.404 21,490 20,760Ethane (g) C2H6 30.070 — 74 0.418 22,320 20,430Ethanol (�) C2H6O 46.069 49.3 395 0.583 12,760 11,530Propane (�) C3H8 44.097 31.2 144 0.662 21,640 19,930Butane (�) C4H10 58.123 36.1 156 0.578 21,130 19,5101-Pentene (�) C5H10 70.134 40.0 156 0.525 20,540 19,190Isopentane (�) C5H12 72.150 39.1 — 0.554 20,890 19,310Benzene (�) C6H6 78.114 54.7 186 0.411 17,970 17,240Hexene (�) C6H12 84.161 42.0 169 0.439 20,430 19,090Hexane (�) C6H14 86.177 41.2 157 0.542 20,770 19,240Toluene (�) C7H8 92.141 54.1 177 0.408 18,230 17,420Heptane (�) C7H16 100.204 42.7 157 0.535 20,680 19,180Octane (�) C8H18 114.231 43.9 156 0.533 20,590 19,100Decane (�) C10H22 142.285 45.6 155 0.528 20,490 19,020Gasoline (�) CnH1.87n 100–110 45–49 151 0.57 20,300 18,900Light diesel (�) CnH1.8n 170 49–52 116 0.53 19,800 18,600Heavy diesel (�) CnH1.7n 200 51–55 99 0.45 19,600 18,400Natural gas (g) CnH3.8nN0.1n 18 — — 0.48 21,500 19,400

1At 1 atm and 68°F.2At 77°F for liquid fuels, and 1 atm and normal boiling temperature for gaseous fuels.3At 77°F. Multiply by molar mass to obtain heating values in Btu/lbmol.

998 | Thermodynamics

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Property Tables and Charts - [PDF Document] (91)

Appendix 2 | 999

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